Investigating the psychological and social predictors of burnout among nurses

Steenkamp, Jeanette Gwendoline (2014-04)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Burnout levels have been found to be high among nurses in both public and private hospitals in South Africa. Burnout is defined within the human services as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and reduced personal accomplishment that can occur among individuals who work with people in some capacity. High levels of burnout have been linked to nurses’ intention to leave the profession, which places additional strain on an already struggling public health system characterised by a shortage of nurses in South Africa. The primary aim of the present cross-sectional correlational study was to determine the proportion of the variance in burnout among nurses accounted for by the linear combination of certain demographic characteristics and occupational stress factors. Secondary aims were to determine the relationship between such factors and burnout levels and to determine the average level of burnout and occupational stress factors reported. A convenience sample of 110 nurses was recruited from a public hospital located in the Western Cape. An analytical survey design for the collection of quantitative data was used. The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that workload, interpersonal conflict at work, job status, organisational constraints, and HIV/AIDS stigma by association significantly predicted burnout levels. The linear combination of these variables accounted for 38% of the variance in emotional exhaustion, 32% of the variance in depersonalisation, and 12% of the variance in personal accomplishment. Death and dying-related stress and age did not predict burnout levels. Age was also the only predictor variable not significantly associated with burnout levels. Although burnout levels were not found to be high on average, 34% of the sample reported high levels of emotional exhaustion. A high average level of workload was also reported. It is recommended that future research should focus on the development and evaluation of interventions to ameliorate burnout among South African nurses.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hoë vlakke van uitbranding is bevind onder verpleegkundiges in beide openbare en private hospitale in Suid-Afrika. Uitbranding word binne die menslike dienste gedefinieer as 'n sindroom van emosionele uitputting, depersonalisasie en verminderde persoonlike vervulling wat kan voorkom onder individue wat werk met mense in een of ander hoedanigheid. Hoë vlakke van uitbranding is gekoppel aan verpleegkundiges se voorneme om die professie te verlaat, wat bykomende druk plaas op 'n reeds sukkelende openbare gesondheidstelsel gekenmerk deur 'n tekort aan verpleegkundiges in Suid-Afrika. Die primêre doel van die huidige deursnee- korrelasionele studie was om te bepaal hoeveel van die variansie in uitbranding onder verpleegkundiges voorspel word deur die lineêre kombinasie van sekere demografiese eienskappe en beroepstresfaktore. Sekondêre doelwitte was om die verhouding tussen sodanige faktore en uitbrandingsvlakke te bepaal en om die gemiddelde vlak van uitbranding en beroepstresfaktore soos gerapporteer te bepaal. ’n Gerieflikheidsteekproef van 110 verpleegkundiges is gewerf uit 'n openbare hospitaal geleë in die Wes-Kaap. 'n Analitiese opname-ontwerp vir die insameling van kwantitatiewe data is gebruik. Die resultate van hiërargiese meervoudige regressie-ontledings het aangedui dat werkslading, interpersoonlike konflik by die werk, werkstatus, organisatoriese beperkinge , en MIV/VIGS stigma deur assosiasie uitbrandingsvlakke beduidend voorspel het. Die lineêre kombinasie van hierdie veranderlikes was verantwoordelik vir 38% van die variansie in emosionele uitputting, 32% van die variansie in depersonalisasie, en 12% van die variansie in persoonlike vervulling. Dood en sterfte-verwante stres en ouderdom het nie uitbrandingsvlakke voorspel nie. Ouderdom was ook die enigste veranderlike wat nie beduidend geassosieer was met uitbrandingsvlakke nie. Alhoewel dit bevind is dat gemiddelde vlakke van uitbranding nie hoog is nie, het 34% van die steekproef hoë vlakke van emosionele uitputting gerapporteer. 'n Hoë gemiddelde vlak van werkslading is ook aangemeld. Dit word aanbeveel dat toekomstige navorsing toegespits behoort te word op die ontwikkeling en evaluering van ingrypings om uitbranding onder Suid-Afrikaanse verpleegkundiges aan te spreek.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86643
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