Increasing distributed generation penetration when limited by voltage regulation

Nye, Jonathan Mark (2014-04)

Thesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This work investigated the influence of photo-voltaic generators on the voltage control of distribution feeders and the methods that can be used to increase the maximum penetration levels of these feeders. Initially, a brief overview of the reasons why it is necessary to increase the generation penetration levels on distribution feeders was provided. A review of various issues associated with connecting generation to the distribution network; methods and technologies that can be used to increase penetration levels; and ways to improve voltage regulation on MV feeders was given. The grid code for renewable power plants and the voltage apportionment standard were reviewed to determine what limits penetration levels and what can be done to increase them. The operation and control of a typical distribution network, without any connected generation, was initially investigated. A control strategy was implemented that provided suitable voltage regulation on the feeder during both high and low load. The influence of connecting generation to this typical distribution network, without making any modifications to the control of the feeder, was investigated. Base penetration levels, for various generation connection cases, were found. It was shown that the penetration is limited by the rapid voltage change or voltage rise. The base penetration levels were compared to the optimal amount of generation that provides the lowest losses. It was shown that the penetration needs to be increased by between 100% and 200% for the feeder’s losses to be minimised. Voltage regulator and capacitor control was influenced by the generation and they could not function as expected. It was shown that flicker will not be an issue, even with penetration limits well above the current allowable limits. Various methods that can be used to increase the amount of generation that is connected to the typical network were investigated. On-load tap changer setpoint reduction, reactive power control and electronic voltage regulators are some of the methods or technologies that can be used to increase penetration levels. It was shown that each of the technologies can assist, depending on the circumstance, in increasing penetration. The individual modifications can increase penetration up to 100% at the cost of increased tap changes and in some cases losses. Two proposed control strategies were assessed, that combine the investigated technologies. The results showed that it is possible to increase penetration levels by 50-80%, while improving power quality and reducing losses when compared to the base generation connection case.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie werk ondersoek die invloed van die foto- voltaïes kragopwekkers op die spanning beheer van die verspreiding voerder asook die metodes wat gebruik kan word om die maksimum penetrasie vlakke van hierdie voerders te verhoog. Aanvanklik is 'n kort oorsig van die redes waarom dit nodig is om die opwekking penetrasie vlakke op die verspreiding voerders, te verhoog voorsien . Eerstens word 'n hersiening van verskeie kwessies wat verband hou met die koppeling van generasie na die verspreidingsnetwerk gegee. Tweedens word metodes en tegnologie wat gebruik kan word om penetrasie te verhoog gegee en laastens word maniere om spanning regulasie op medium spanning voerders te verbeter, gegee. Die rooster kode "grid code => probeer liewer netwerk regulasies" vir hernubare krag aanlegte en die spanning toedeling standaard is hersien om te bepaal wat beperk die penetrasie vlakke en wat gedoen kan word om dit te verhoog. Die werking en beheer van 'n tipiese verspreiding netwerk, sonder enige verbonde generasie, is aanvanklik ondersoek. 'n Beheer-strategie is toe geïmplementeer wat geskikte spanning regulasie op die voerder tydens beide hoë en lae belasting verskaf. Die invloed van die koppeling van opwekking tot hierdie tipiese verspreiding netwerk, sonder om enige veranderinge aan die beheer van die voerder, is ondersoek. Basis penetrasie vlakke, vir verskeie generasie verband gevalle, is gevind. Daar is bewys dat die penetrasie word beperk deur die vinnige spanning verandering of spanning styging. Die basis penetrasie vlakke word vergelyking met die optimale aantal generasie wat die laagste verliese bied. Daar is bewys dat die penetrasie moet met tussen 100% en 200% verhoog word sodat die voerder se verliese beperk kan word. Die spanning reguleerder en kapasitor beheer is beïnvloed deur die opwekking en hulle kon nie reageer soos verwag nie. Daar is getoon dat flikker nie 'n probleem sal wees nie; selfs al is die penetrasie vlakke ver bo die huidige toelaatbare grense. Verskillende metodes wat gebruik kan word om die aantal generasie wat gekoppel is aan die tipiese netwerk te verhoog is ondersoek. Aan-las tap wisselaar vermindering, reaktiewe krag beheer en elektroniese spanning reguleerders is 'n paar van die tegnieke wat gebruik kan word om penetrasie te verhoog. Daar is bewys dat elkeen van die tegnologieë kan help, afhangende van die omstandighede, vir toenemende penetrasie. Die individuele veranderinge kan penetrasie verhoog tot 100% by die koste van 'n verhoogde tap veranderinge en in sommige gevalle verliese. Twee voorgestelde beheer strategieë is beoordeel, wat die ondersoek tegnologie kombineer. Die resultate het getoon dat dit moontlik is om penetrasie te verhoog met 50% tot 80%, terwyl die verbetering van gehalte en die vermindering van krag verliese in vergelyking met die basis generasie verband hou.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86605
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