The role of sucker wounds as portals for grapevine trunk pathogen infections

Makatini, Gugulethu Joy (2014-04)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Grapevine trunk diseases are responsible for reduced wine and table grape production world-wide. Trunk disease infections are caused by xylem-inhabiting pathogens which include species of Botryosphaeriaceae, Diatrypaceae, Hymenochaetales and Diaporthales, as well as Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium spp. Winter pruning wounds are regarded as the main infection-sites for trunk disease pathogens. However, the role of sucker wounds as portals of trunk disease infections has been minimally investigated. Knowledge of the potential role of grapevine trunk pathogen infections that occur through sucker wounds is important for better wound protection strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the role of grapevine sucker wounds as portals of entry for trunk disease pathogens and to assess the use of Trichoderma spp. for sucker wound protection. The susceptibility of sucker wounds to different trunk disease pathogens was assessed from natural as well as artificial infections. In addition the duration of sucker wound susceptibility in the field was also ascertained. Sucker wounds were sampled from three wine and two table grape vineyards during 2011 and 2012 in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Thereafter, fungal isolations were made from 161 sucker wounds and the cultures were identified based on cultural and morphological characteristics as well as the internal transcribed spacer regions and 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene. Sixty-two percent of the wounds were naturally infected by at least one of the trunk pathogens. Phomopsis (Po.) viticola (46%; 18%), Diplodia (D.) seriata (30%; 9%) and Phaeomoniella (Ph.) chlamydospora (27%; 5%) were the most predominant trunk disease pathogens isolated from sucker wounds of field wine and table grape cultivars, respectively. Lower incidences of Phaeoacremonium aleophilum (18%), Eutypella sp. (3%), Cryptovalsa ampelina (2%), Diplodia sp. (1%) and Neofusicoccum australe (1%) were obtained, however, only from wine grapes. Sucker wounds on 1-year-old potted grapevine plants of Chardonnay cultivar were inoculated with spore suspensions of Eutypa lata, N. parvum, Pa. aleophilum, Ph. chlamydospora and Po. viticola in the glasshouse. After 4 months all the inoculated pathogens could be re-isolated at the following incidences: N. parvum (85%), Ph. chlamydospora (75%), Po. viticola (65%), Pa. aleophilum (55%) and E. lata (45%). Sucker wound susceptibility was further ascertained under field conditions on 12-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines by artificial inoculation of the same pathogen species. After 5 months three pathogens could be re-isolated at the following incidences: Po. viticola (65%), N. parvum (32.5%) and Ph. chlamydospora (7.5%). The duration of susceptibility of field sucker wounds to Ph. chlamydospora was assessed for a period of 4 weeks. The wounds remained susceptible for 4 weeks with a decline in susceptibility after one week. This study showed that sucker wounds are susceptible to the major trunk disease pathogens and thus could play an important role in grapevine trunk disease epidemiology. In the second part of this thesis a possible management strategy to prevent infections of sucker wounds was investigated. The use of Trichoderma (T.) harzianum against two trunk pathogens on sucker wounds was tested in the field. Additionally the sensitivity of T. harzianum and T. atroviride was tested in vitro against 16 fungicides that are used to control powdery mildew, downy mildew, Botrytis rot and Phomopsis cane and leaf spot. In October 2012, sucker wounds were made on 1-year-old wood of Cabernet Sauvignon and spray-treated with Eco-77® immediately after desuckering, and then inoculated with spore suspensions of either Ph. chlamydospora or Po. viticola after 24 hours. After 5 months, isolations were made from the sucker wounds to evaluate the efficacy of the Trichoderma treatment. Trichoderma harzianum reduced the incidence of Ph. chlamydospora by 66.65%. Although the incidence of Po. viticola was reduced by 15.37%, it was not significantly different from the control treatment. The inhibition of mycelial growth and conidial germination of T. harzianum and T. atroviride were screened against 16 fungicides. The fungicides were applied at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 times the recommended dosages. Systemic fungicides boscalid, metrafenone and trifloxystrobin, as well as contact fungicides quinoxyfen and meptyldinocap were least toxic to Trichoderma spp. isolates. For the conidial germination assay, boscalid, trifloxystrobin, penconazole and metrafenone (systemic) plus quinoxyfen and folpet (contact) were compatible with Trichoderma spp. These fungicides were regarded as being compatible with Trichoderma spp. isolates because they gave mean percentage inhibitions of less than 50% at all the tested dosages. Spiroxamine and pyrimethanil gave the highest mean percentage inhibitions for both mycelial inhibition and conidial germination. The findings of this study showed that T. harzianum can protect sucker wounds against Ph. chlamydospora in the field. Furthermore, some fungicides applied for the control of powdery mildew and Phomopsis cane and leaf spot can be alternatively or simultaneously applied with T. harzianum and T. atroviride, however, this will have to be verified with field trials.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Wingerd stamsiektes is wêreldwyd verantwoordelik vir verminderde wyn- en tafeldruif produksie. Stamsiektes word veroorsaak deur patogene wat in die xileem voorkom, insluitend verskeie spesies in die Botryosphaeriaceae, Diatrypaceae, Hymenochaetales en Diaporthales, asook Phaeomoniella chlamydospora en Phaeoacremonium spp. Winter snoeiwonde word beskou as die hoof bron van infeksies vir stamsiekte patogene. Die rol van suierwonde as poorte van infeksie vir stamsiektes is nog nie goed bestudeer nie. Kennis van die potensiële rol van wingerd stamsiekte patogeen infeksies wat deur suierwonde plaasvind is belangrik vir die formulasie van beter wondbeskerming strategieë. Die mikpunt van hierdie studie was om die rol van suierwonde as ingangsportale vir wingerd stamsiekte patogene te bepaal en om die gebruik van Trichoderma spp. vir suierwond beskerming te evalueer. Die vatbaarheid van suierwonde vir verskillende stamsiekte patogene is geëvalueer vanuit natuurlike, sowel as kunsmatige infeksies. Die duur van suierwond vatbaarheid in die veld is ook bepaal. Suierwonde is versamel vanuit drie wyn- en twee tafeldruif wingerde gedurende 2011 en 2012 in die Wes Kaap provinsie van Suid Afrika. Hierna is swam isolasies gemaak vanuit 161 suierwonde en die kulture is geïdentifiseer volgens kultuur en morfologiese kenmerke, sowel as die interne transkribeerde spasieerders en 5.8S ribosomale RNA geen. Twee-en-sestig persent van die wonde was geïnfekteer deur ten minste een van die stamsiekte patogene. Phomopsis (Po.) viticola (46%; 18%), Diplodia (D.) seriata (30%; 9%) en Phaeomoniella (Ph.) chlamydospora (27%; 5%) was die mees algemene stamsiekte patogene wat, respektiewelik, vanuit die wyn- en tafeldruif kultivars verky is. Laer hoeveelhede Phaeoacremonium aleophilum (18%), Eutypella sp. (3%), Cryptovalsa ampelina (2%), Diplodia sp. (1%) en Neofusicoccum australe (1%) is verkry, en slegs vanaf wyndruiwe. Suierwonde op 1-jaar oue Chardonnay wingerdplante in potte is in die glashuis geïnokuleer met spoorsuspensies van Eutypa lata, N. parvum, Pa. aleophilum, Ph. chlamydospora en Po. viticola. Na 4 maande kon al die geïnokuleerde patogene her-isoleer word teen die volgende hoeveelhede: N. parvum (85%), Ph. chlamydospora (75%), Po. viticola (65%), Pa. aleophilum (55%) en E. lata (45%). Suierwond vatbaarheid is verder geëvalueer onder veld kondisies op 12-jaar oue Cabernet Sauvignon plante deur kunsmatige inokulasie van die selfde patogeen spesies. Na 5 maande kon drie patogene her-isoleer word teen die volgende hoeveelhede: Po. viticola (65%), N. parvum (32.5%) en Ph. chlamydospora (7.5%). Die duur van vatbaarheid van suierwonde teen Ph. chlamydospora in die veld is geevalueer oor ‘n periode van 4 weke. Die wonde het vatbaar gebly vir 4 weke met ‘n afname in vatbaarheid na ‘n week. Hierdie studie demonstreer dat suierwonde vatbaar is vir die hoof wingerd stamsiektes en dus ‘n belangrike rol in die epidemiologie van wingerd stamsiektes kan speel. In die tweede deel van hierdie tesis is ‘n moontlike bestuurs-strategie ondersoek om infeksie van suierwonde te verhoed. Die gebruik van Trichoderma (T.) harzianum teen twee stampatogene op suierwonde is getoets in die veld. Verder is die in vitro sensitiwiteit van T. harzianum en T. atroviride getoets teen 16 fungisiedes wat gebruik word in die beheer van poeieragtige meeldou, donsskimmel, Botrytis vrot en Phomopsis streepvlek. Gedurende Oktober 2012 is suierwonde gemaak op 1-jaar oue hout van Cabernet Sauvignon en onmiddelik behandel met Eco-77® na suiering. Wonde is dan geïnokuleer met spoorsuspensies van óf Ph. chlamydospora óf Po. viticola na 24 uur. Na 5 maande is isolasies gemaak vanaf suierwonde om die doeltreffendheid van van die Trichoderma behandeling te evalueer. Trichoderma harzianum het die voorkoms van Ph. chlamydospora met 66.65% verminder. Alhoewel die voorkoms van Po. viticola verminder is met 15.37%, was dit nie ‘n beduidende verskil in vergelyking met die kontrole behandeling nie. Die inhibisie van miselium groei en konidia ontkieming van T. harzianum en T. atroviride is getoets teen 16 fungisiedes. Die fungisiedes is aangewend teen 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 en 2 keer die aanbevole dosisse. Sistemiese fungisiedes boscalid, metrafenone en trifloxystrobin, sowel as kontak fungisiedes quinoxyfen en meptyldinocap was die minste toksies teen Trichoderma spp. Gedurende die konidia ontkiemingstoets was boscalid, trifloxystrobin, penconazole en metrafenone (sistemies) en quinoxyfen en folpet (kontak) versoenbaar met Trichoderma spp. Die fungisiedes is beskou as bruikbaar met Trichoderma spp. isolate omdat hulle gemiddelde persentasie inhibisies van minder as 50% teen al die getoetste dosisse gelewer het. Spiroxamine en pyrimethanil het die hoogste gemiddelde persentasie inhibisie gelewer vir beide die miselium inhibisie en konidia ontkieming. Die bevindings van hierdie studie het gewys dat T. harzianum suierwonde kan beskerm teen Ph. chlamydospora in die veld. Verder sou sommige fungisiedes wat aangewend word vir die bestuur van poeieragtige meeldou en streepvlek moontlik alternatiewelik of gelyktydig met T. harzianum en T. atroviride aangewend word, alhowel dit met veldproewe bevestig moet word.

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