Ecological food sense : connections between food waste flows and food production in Enkanini Informal Settlement, Stellenbosch

Mollatt, Michelle Claire (2014-04)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2014

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In situ Informal Settlement Upgrading (ISU) was explored in this thesis, focussing on its relevance to waste service upgrading options immediately available and practically implementable for residents of Enkanini, a poorly serviced township (slum) in Stellenbosch, South Africa. Household food waste (kitchen scraps) was chosen as a key point of entry for exploring the context and viability of in situ improvement of solid waste management services in the area. This was done by investigating ways biological and social aspects of soil quality and food waste management can be incrementally improved in the settlement. Transdisciplinary methodology, Participatory Action Learning and Social Learning perspectives, combined with ecological thinking were used to explore different methods of managing food waste in Enkanini. A food waste collection pilot project was initiated in Enkanini by the Stellenbosch Municipality in 2012. The project was modified and continued in 2013, which served as the case study for this thesis. In 2013, food waste was collected by 56 households over five months. It was treated with Bokashi Effective Micro-organisms (Bokashi EM) containing yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, actinomycetes and photosynthetic bacteria. The Bokashi EM partially fermented the waste before it was used for composting or feeding to Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae. Laboratory testing of food waste, compost, soils and larvae waste residue determined the safety, potential and sustainability of food waste for recycling and contribution to local urban agriculture by closing the organic waste loop, and for generating an income stream. A total of 5851kg food waste was collected, saving 6m3 landfill space. Households generated 5,2kg - 9,6kg food waste per week. Extrapolating this lower figure for all of Enkanini (about 2400 households), about 50,2 tonnes of food waste could be generated per month. If this were collected and recycled or composted, this would save 51,2m3 landfill space per month. The most commonly cited benefit of food waste collections by participants was reduction of vermin in or around their homes. Laboratory testing indicated that some samples had high levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. No traces of Salmonella were found in food waste, compost and soil samples, and most were within acceptable limits for heavy metals. It was cautioned that vegetables grown on soils or compost with high E. coli be washed or cooked before consumption. Following socially and ecologically sustainable management of Enkanini’s food waste requires a combination of waste management methods. Options include localised composting - burying EM treated food waste in soil; in situ container composting of waste and adding this to soil; processing of EM treated food waste by Black Soldier Fly larvae (and their subsequent use as feed for chickens or fish); and finally by anaerobic digestion for generation of biogas and effluent fertiliser in local biodigestors. The thesis showed that biological elements (such as bacteria and soil nutrients) have impacts on residents in communities and these need to be considered significant. The thesis suggests ecological elements be considered as indicators or building blocks for ISU locally, nationally and internationally. Keywords: in situ incremental upgrading, food waste management, Effective Micro-organisms, social learning, urban agriculture, closed-loop systems, organic waste management, informal settlements.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In situ Opgraderingsprojek vir Informele Nedersetting (OIN) is in hierdie tesis ondersoek, met die fokus om die relevansie van afval diens opgradering opsies prakties te implementeer vir die inwoners van Enkanini, Stellenbosch, Suid Afrika, 'n gemeenskap met swak dienslewering. Huishoudelike kombuis voedselafval is gekies om die konteks en lewensvatbaarheid van in situ verbetering van vaste afval bestuur dienste te ondersoek. Dit is bereik deur maniere te ondersoek om die biologiese en sosiale aspekte van die kwaliteit van grond en voedselafval bestuur in die nedersetting te verbeter. Transdissiplinêre metode, Deelnemende Aksie Leer en Sosiale Leerprosesse, gekombineer met ekologiese denke, is gebruik is om verskillende metodes van die bestuur van voedselafval in Enkanini te verken. 'N Enkanini voedselafval versamelingsprojek is in 2012 deur die Stellenbosch Munisipaliteit begin. Dit is in 2013 aangepas en vir hierdie studie gebruik. Gedurende vyf maande in 2013 is voedselafval deur 56 huishoudings ingesamel. Dit is behandel met Bokashi effektiewe mikro-organismes (EM Bokashi) met gis, melksuur bakterieë, aktinomisete en fotosintetiese bakterieë. Die Bokashi EM het die afval gedeeltelik gegis voordat die afval gebruik was vir kompos of voeding aan Swart Soldaat Vlieg (Hermetia illucens) larwes. Voedselafval, kompos, grond en larwe oorskot laboratourim toetse het die veiligheid bepaal, asook die potensiaal en volhoubaarheid van die afval vir herwinning en die bydrae tot die plaaslike stedelike landbou deur middel van die organiese afval siklus, en vir inkomste generering. 5851kg voedselafval is ingesamel en 6m³ se opvullingsruimte bespaar. Die huishoudings het 5,2kg – 9,6kg voedselafval per week gegenereer. Die laer syfer in aggeneem, kan sowat 50,2 ton voedsalafval per maand in Enkanini (ongeveer 2400 huishoudings) gegenereer word. As dit ingesamel, herwin of gekomposteer was, sou 51,2 m³ opvullingsruimte per maand bespaar word. Die belangrikste voordeel van die voedselafval versamelings was die vermindering van knaag en aasdiere rondom wonings. Laboratoriumtoetse het hoë vlakke van Escherichia coli (E. coli) bakterieë in sommige monsters gevind. Geen spore van Salmonella is in die voedselafval, kompos en grondmonsters gevind nie en meeste was binne die aanvaarbare perke vir swaar metale. Die gemeenskap is gewaarsku om groente wat in die grond of kompos gekweek is voor verbruik in chloorwater te was of kook. Die sosiale en ekologies volhoubare bestuur van Enkanini se voedselafval vereis 'n kombinasie van afval bestuursmetodes. Opsies sluit gelokaliseerde kompos - begrawe EM behandelde voedsel afval in die grond; in situ houer kompos afval en die toevoeging van hierdie tot die grond; verwerking van EM behandelde voedselafval deur Swart Soldaat Vlieg larwes (en hul daaropvolgende gebruik as voer vir hoenders of vis); en uiteindelik deur mestvergisting vir die generasie van biogas en kunsmis in biovergisters. Die tesis toon dat biologiese elemente (soos bakterieë en voedingstowwe in grond)'n impak het op die gemeenskap se inwoners en as n belangrik faktor beskou moet word. Die tesis dui ekologiese elemente as n toekomstige aanwysers aan indien OIN plaaslik, nasionaal of internasionaal oorweeg word. Sleutelwoorde: in situ toenemende opgradering, kos afval bestuur, effektiewe mikro-organismes, sosiale leerproses, stedelike landbou, geslotestelsel-sisteme, organiese afval, informele nedersettings.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86550
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