Kommunisme, Suid-Afrika en die Koreaanse oorlog 1950 – 1953

Burger, Dorothea (2014-04)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The Cold War was regarded as a struggle between East and West, and was based on ideological differences, socialism as opposed to capitalism. Socialism represented a dictatorship as opposed to capitalism and democracy. This war was mainly between America and Russia and direct confrontation was avoided. Countries worldwide were involved. The Soviet Union’s policy of expansionism and the effects of dictatorship could have detrimentally effected the free West. Although the Cold War intensified after the Second World War (SWW), the mistrust between the main roleplayers was already evident during the SWW. South Africa’s domestic circumstances and policy pertaining to communism involved the country in the Cold War. The founding and growth of the Communist Party and communism in South Africa occurred in phases. After its establishment it was linked to the Comintern, the central organisation in Russia. The establishment of socialism here was to be according to certain strategies. Initially it was a white party and the aim was a white socialist South Africa. This approach was altered by the Comintern. The party was politically on an island. The membership was also too small. In order to give effect to the revolutionary goal, drastic changes were necessary. Black people were recruited and co-operation with black organisations gained momentum. A socialist black Republic became the focus. The domestic politics since formation of the Union was dominated by whites and driven mainly by two parties who alternated government until 1948. The one being conservative and the other more liberal. The 1948 elections won by the conservative National Party (NP) had a profound influence on the internal affairs of the country. Racial discrimination, which already existed, was in line with the policy of a white South Africa where whites ruled and was extended and confirmed by legislation. The aspirations of black people for political and social justice were declined. Separate development of black people was to satisfy those aspirations. Brown people and Indians would have been dealt with in other uncertain ways. Communism was rejected and legislation introduced against it. The domestic policy based on race and racial division created a more divided society. However, the discrimination attracted resistance from black people who organised themselves. In this peroid of growing resistance, communists usurped into black organisations. During this oversight period, Korea went through two important moments. The first was with the internal uprising in the south within the vacuum which was created after Japan, as colonial ruler of Korea, was forced to surrender during the SWW. The uprising was successfully suppressed. The second was the Korean War. By an earlier agreement it was decided that Korea will be divided. America would be entrusted with the management of the South, and Russia in the North. With the support of Russia, North Korea invaded and attacked the South with the aim of subjection. With the outbreak of the war North Korea was communistic and South Korea capitalistic and democratic. Under the auspices of the UNO and the leadership of America this onslaught was successfully fended off. Various countries, including South Africa, participated. Participation in the war was primarily based on the country’s internal affairs and the rejection of communism and ... The Korean War was covered by the media in South Africa. For the purpose of this study, discussion of the media coverage is narrowed to that of two Cape daily newspapers. The coverage does not deal with any battles, but rather the reason for the war, the attitude of the government towards the war, the military personnel and their achievements and the costs of the war. Lastly, a review of the uncritical reporting of the media and a possible explanation.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die Koue Oorlog was gesien as ‘n stryd tussen die Ooste en Weste, gegrond op ‘n ideologiese verskil. Dit was sosialisme teenoor kapitalisme. Sosialisme het ‘n diktatuur verteenwoordig teenoor kapitalisme en demokrasie. Hierdie oorlog was hoofsaaklik tussen Amerika en Rusland, met vermyding van direkte konfrontasie. Lande wêreldwyd is betrek. Die ekspansionistiese beleid van die Sowjetunie en die gevolge van ‘n diktatuur kon die vrye Weste negatief beïnvloed. Al het die Koue Oorlog na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog (TWO) toegeneem, was die wantroue tussen die hoofrolspelers gedurende die TWO sigbaar. Suid-Afrika se binnelandse omstandighede en beleid oor kommunisme het die land by die Koue Oorlog betrek; Die ontstaan en opkoms van die Kommunistiese Party en kommunisme in Suid-Afrika het deur stadia gegaan. Na totstandkoming is dit by die Komintern, die sentrale organisasie in Rusland, ingeskakel. Om sosialisme te lande te vestig is sekere strategieë bepaal. Aanvanklik was dit ‘n wit party met ‘n wit sosialistiese Suid-Afrika as doel. Hierdie benadering het in opdrag van die Komintern verander. Polities was die party op ‘n eiland. Die getalle was ook te klein. Om by die rewolusionêre doelwit uit te kom moes dringende aanpassings kom. Swartmense is gewerf en samewerking met swart organisasies het momentum gekry. Die fokus het na ‘n swart sosialistiese Republiek verskuif; Die binnelandse politiek sedert Unie-wording in 1910 is deur witmense binne hoofsaaklik twee partye gedryf wat afwisselend tot 1948 regeer het. Die een meer konserwatief en die ander meer liberaal. Die 1948-verkiesing wat deur die konserwatiewe Nasionale Party (NP) gewen is, het ‘n ingrypende uitwerking op die binnelandse sake van die land gehad. Die rassediskriminasie wat reeds bestaan het was in lyn met ‘n beleid van ‘n wit Suid- Afrika waar wit regeer het en ook deur wetgewing uitgebrei en bevestig is. Die aspirasies van swartmense vir politieke en sosiale geregtigheid is afgewys. Afsonderlike ontwikkeling van swart mense moes daardie aspirasies bevredig. Bruinmense en Indiërs sou op ander onsekere wyses hanteer word. Kommunisme is verwerp en wetgewing is teen dit ingestel. Die binnelandse beleid op grond van ras en rasseskeiding het ‘n verder verdeelde samelewing geskep. Hierdie diskriminasie het weerstand vanaf swartmense uitgelok wat hulself organisatories begin rig het. Kommuniste is mettertyd binne hierdie groeiende weerstand in swart organisasies opgeneem. Korea het gedurende die oorsigtyd twee belangrike momente beleef. Die eerste was die binnelandse opstande in die suide wat binne die vakuum onstaan het nadat Japan, as koloniale heerser van Korea, tydens die TWO tot oorgawe gedwing is. Die opstande is suksesvol onderdruk. Die tweede was die Koreaanse Oorlog. By ‘n vroeëre ooreenkoms is bepaal dat Korea in twee sal verdeel. Bestuur van die suide sal aan Amerika toevertrou word, met Rusland in die noorde. Met ondersteuning van Rusland het Noord-Korea die suide binnegeval om dit geweldadig te onderwerp. Onder gesag van die VVO en onder leiding van Amerika is hierdie aanslag suksesvol teengestaan. Verskeie lande, waaronder Suid-Afrika, het deelgeneem. Met die oorlog was Noord-Korea kommunisties en Suid- Korea kapitalisties en demokraties. Deelname aan die oorlog was hoofsaaklik as gevolg van Suid-Afrika se binnelandse toestand en die afwysing van kommunisme; en Die Koreaanse Oorlog is deur die media in Suid-Afrika gedek. Vir doeleindes van hierdie studie word bespreking van die mediadekking vernou tot dié van twee Kaapse dagblaaie. Die dekking behandel nie die veldslae nie, maar eerder die agtergrond tot en rede vir die oorlog, die ingesteldheid van die regering tot die oorlog, die militêre personeel en hulle prestasies en die koste van deelname. Dan, ‘n oorsig oor die kritieklose verslaggewing van die media en ‘n moontlike verklaring daarvoor.

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