Domestic water demand for consumers with rainwater harvesting systems

O Brien, Olivia (2014-04)

Thesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The focus of the study is to theoretically assess tank-water demand and employ methods to establish the actual tank-water demand at selected houses in a case study area. This study also examines the influence of domestic rainwater harvesting systems when used in combination with a municipal water distribution system. The case study comprises of 410 low cost housing units in the Western Cape. The system demand patterns of low cost housing units are uncharacteristic, when compared with suburban system demand patterns, and cannot be defined by traditional models. Similarly, the use of rainwater harvesting systems in these areas follows an unconventional routine that is yet to be defined. A stochastic end-use model for water demand is developed which produces temporal profiles for water supplied from both sources, namely the water distribution system and the rainwater harvesting system. The model approximates a daily system and tank-water demand pattern for a single domestic household, using @RISK software. The demand estimation methodology is clarified through application on a particular case study site where harvested rainwater is frequently utilized. Estimates of the parameter values are based on consumer surveys and previous studies on the case study area, where the household size was defined in the form of a probability distribution. The results confirm the atypical system demand patterns in low cost housing units units. Although two clear peaks exist in the morning and in the evening, a relatively constant average flow is present throughout the day. A sensitivity analysis of all the model parameters verified that the household size has the most substantial influence on the tank-water demand pattern. The system and tank-water demand patterns were compared to published average daily water demand guidelines, which confirmed that increased water savings could be achieved when the rainwater source is accessible inside the household with minimal effort. The stochastic demand profiles derived as part of this research agree with the metered system demand in the same area. The results of this study could be incorporated into the future development of national standards.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die fokus van die studie is om die tenkwater-aanvraag teoreties te ontleed en metodes in werking te stel om die werklike tenkwater-aanvraag vas te stel by geselekteerde huise in ‘n gevallestudie area. Hierdie studie ondersoek ook die invloed van plaaslike reënwater-herwinningstelsels wanneer dit gebruik word in kombinasie met ‘n munisipale waterverspreidingstelsel. Die gevallestudie bestaan uit 410 laekoste behuisingseenhede in die Wes-Kaap. Die stelsel-aanvraagpatrone van laekoste behuisingseenhede is verskillend wanneer dit met voorstedelike stelsel-aanvraagpatrone vergelyk word en kan nie gedefinieer word deur tradisionele modelle nie. Soortgelyk volg die gebruik van reënwater-herwinningstelsels in hierdie areas ‘n onkonvensionele roetine. ‘n Stogastiese eindgebruikmodel vir water-aanvraag is ontwikkel, wat tydelike profiele genereer vir water wat van beide bronne verskaf word, naamlik die waterverspreidingstelsel en die reënwater-herwinningstelsel. Die model bepaal by benadering ‘n daaglikse stelsel- en tenkwater-aanvraagpatroon vir ‘n enkele plaaslike huishouding, deur @RISK sagteware. Die aanvraag-beramingstegnieke word verduidelik deur toepassing op ‘n spesifieke gevallestudie, waar herwinde reënwater gereeld gebruik word. Die parameter waardeberamings is gebaseer op verbruikers-opnames en vorige studies oor die gevallestudie-gebied, waar die grootte van die huishoudings bepaal was in die vorm van 'n waarskynlikheidsverspreiding. Die resultate bevestig die atipiese stesel aanvraagpatrone in laekoste behuisingseenhede eenhede. Alhoewel twee duidelike pieke in die oggend en die aand voorkom, is ‘n relatiewe konstante vloei dwarsdeur die dag teenwoordig. ‘n Sensitiwiteitsanalise van al die modelparameters bevestig dat die grootte van die huishouding die grootste beduidende invloed op tenkwater- aanvraagpatrone het. Die stelsel- en tenkwater-aanvraagpatrone was vergelyk met gepubliseerde gemiddelde daaglikse water-aanvraag riglyne wat bevestig dat meer waterbesparings bereik kan word waar die reënwaterbron binne die huishouding beskikbaar is met minimale moeite. Die stogastiese aanvraagprofiele, wat as deel van hierdie navorsing afgelei was, stem saam met die gemeterde stelsel-aanvraagpatroon van dieselfde area. Die resultate van hierdie studie kan in die toekomstige ontwikkeling van nasionale standaarde opgeneem word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86514
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