Vervreemding, patronaat en tuiskoms : die Gilgamesj-epos vir Afrikaanse kinderlesers

Walters, Coenraad Hendrik (2014-04)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The epic of Gilgamesh is the oldest recorded story known to humanity. It has a long and complex textual history. The final version of the epic, generally known as the standard version, was produced about 1200 B.C. in the Babylonian dialect of Akkadian by a priest and scribe named Sin-leqi-unninni. The cuneiform tablets upon which the epic was recorded, were rediscovered during the nineteenth century when European archaeologists started digging in the ancient cities of the Middle East, especially Nineveh. Since then the story has been translated into many languages; several English translations have been published. Some of these translations of the epic maintain epic poetic form, others are in prose, and there are a number of versions for children. At the moment no complete version exists in Afrikaans. This thesis presents a translation of parts from Geraldine McCaughrean's English children's version, which was published in 2002. McCaughrean adapts the structure of the standard version, clearly a strategy to make her text exciting for modern readers. The theoretical insights of André Lefevere and Lawrence Venuti form the paradigm for the translation process. Lefevere sees translation as one of a number of rewriting techniques. The detail of such a rewriting is determined by the poetics of the target culture, the patronage which enables such a translation to exist, and the ideological framework within which the rewriting develops. Venuti distinguishes between two translational approaches: a domesticating translation adapts the translation to the target culture and creates the impression with readers that they are reading an original text; foreignising translation makes the readers aware that they are reading a text from another culture. The opportunities and limitations of children's literature and translation for children are explored. Specific attention is given to taboo topics, as a number of these appears in the Gilgamesh Epic. The writers of the children's versions have solved these problems in different ingenious ways. Annotations shed light on the translational challenges and the decisions of the translator. Finally the whole project is evaluated and suggestions for further research are made.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die Gilgamesj-epos is die mensdom se oudste opgetekende verhaal. Dit het ‘n lang en komplekse ontstaansgeskiedenis. Die finale variant van die epos, wat algemeen bekend staan as die standaardweergawe, is ongeveer 1200 v.C. in Babiloniese Akkadies geskryf deur ‘n skriba-priester genaamd Sin-leqi-unninni. Die spykerskriftablette waarop dit opgeteken is, is gedurende die negentiende eeu herontdek tydens argeologiese opgrawings van die verwoeste antieke stede in die Midde-Ooste, veral Nineve. Sedertdien is die verhaal in verskeie tale vertaal; daar bestaan etlike vertalings in Engels. Hierdie vertalings van die epos word soms aangebied as epiese gedig, in ander gevalle in prosavorm, en daar bestaan ook ‘n paar verskillende weergawes vir kinders. Daar bestaan tans egter geen volledige weergawe in Afrikaans nie. Hierdie tesis bied ‘n vertaling van dele uit een van die Engelse kinderweergawes, dié van Geraldine McCaughrean, wat in 2002 verskyn het. McCaughrean pas die struktuur van die standaardweergawe aan, ‘n duidelike strategie om haar teks vir hedendaagse lesers opwindend te maak. Die teoretiese insigte van André Lefevere en Lawrence Venuti vorm die raamwerk vir die vertaalproses. Lefevere beskou vertaling as een van ‘n hele aantal tegnieke van herskrywing. Die besonderhede van so ‘n herskrywing word bepaal deur die poetika van die doelkultuur, die patronaat wat die herskrywing moontlik maak, en die ideologiese raamwerk waarbinne die herskrywing ontstaan. Venuti onderskei tussen twee vertaalbenaderings: ‘n domestikerende vertaling pas die vertaalde teks sterk aan by die doelkultuur sodat lesers van die vertaling onder die indruk gebring word dat hulle ‘n oorspronklike teks lees; en vervreemdende vertaling, waarin die lesers bewus is dat hulle ‘n teks uit ‘n ander kultuur lees. Die moontlikhede en beperkinge van kinderliteratuur en vertalings vir kinderlesers word ondersoek. Spesifieke aandag word geskenk aan taboe-onderwerpe, waarvan ‘n hele paar in die Gilgamesj-epos voorkom, en hoe die skeppers van die kinderweergawes hierdie probleme opgelos het. Annotasies belig die vertaaluitdagings en die vertaler se keuses. Ten slotte word die projek as geheel geëvalueer en voorstelle vir verdere navorsing verskaf.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86499
This item appears in the following collections: