A critical evaluation of the enterprise concept and the effect thereof on input tax and its apportionment for VAT purposes

Marais, Pierre (2014-04)

Thesis (MAcc)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In South Africa, value-added tax (‘VAT’) is classified as an indirect tax which is levied on goods or services supplied in the Republic of South Africa. In South Africa, VAT is a destination-based invoice type tax system which means that the consumption of goods and services are taxed. To register as a vendor for VAT purposes, the business conducted must fall within the ambit of an ‘enterprise’ as defined in section 1(1) of the Value-Added Tax Act, 1991 (Act No. 89 of 1991) (the VAT Act). Where a registered vendor makes taxable supplies of goods or services, it is subject to VAT at the standard rate in terms of section 7(1) of the VAT Act, unless and exemption or exception applies thereto. VAT incurred will constitute “input tax” as defined in section 1(1) of the VAT Act, where amongst others, the goods or services are acquired wholly for the purpose of consumption, use or supply in the course of making taxable supplies, or where the goods or services are acquired partly for such purpose, to such extent as determined in accordance with section 17(1) of the VAT Act. The vendor will therefore be confronted with various questions with regard to whether the activities are performed by the enterprise, or whether such activities fall outside the scope of VAT and therefore constitute non-enterprise activities. When the activities are regarded as enterprise activities, the vendor will have to determine whether the VAT incurred for the enterprise activities are used, consumed or supplied in making taxable supplies. Where the VAT incurred cannot be attributed to the making of taxable supplies, an apportionment of the VAT incurred is required. The apportionment method used in apportioning the VAT incurred for mixed purposes, must be fair and reasonable. This research assignment will therefore investigate and focus on the treatment of the VAT incurred by the business in deducting the correct amount of input tax.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In Suid-Afrika word belasting op toegevoegde waarde (‘BTW’) geklassifiseer as ‘n indirekte belasting wat gehef word op die lewering van goed of dienste. BTW is ‘n destinasie-gebaseerde faktuurbasis wat beteken dat die verbruik van goed of dienste in Suid-Afrika aan belasting onderhewig is. Om vir BTW doeleindes te registreer, moet die besigheid of die bedryf aan die vereistes van ‘n ‘onderneming’ soos gedefineer in artikel 1(1) van die Belasting op Toegevoegde Waarde Wet (die BTW Wet) voldoen. ‘n Geregistreerde ondernemer wat goed of dienste lewer, moet BTW teen die standaardkoers ingevolge artikel 7(1) van die BTW Wet hef, tensy ‘n vrystelling of uitsondering op hierdie reël van toepassing is. Die belasting gehef ingevolge artikel 7(1) van die BTW Wet verteenwoordig insetbelasting indien die betrokke goed of dienste deur die ondernemer verkry word geheel en al met die doel van verbruik, gebruik of lewering in die loop van die doen vir belasbare lewerings. Indien die goed of dienste gedeeltelik vir daardie doel aangewend word, is die ondernemer verplig om die belasting toe te deel ingevolge artikel 17 van die BTW Wet. Die ondernemer word dus met verskeie vrae gekonfronteer om te bepaal of die goed of dienste aangewend word in die loop ter bevordering van die onderneming. Indien die goed of dienste nie vir daardie doel aangewend word nie, die sogenaamde ondernemingsaktiwiteite, sal die BTW aangegaan deur die ondernemer buite die bestek van die BTW Wet val en gevolglik as nie-ondernemingsaktiwitiete geklassifiseer word. Indien die BTW nie geheel en al gebruik word vir die maak van belasbare lewerings nie, moet die ondernemer die sogenaamde BTW toedeel volgens ‘n erkende toedelingsmetode ingevolge artikel 17 van die BTW Wet. Hierdie metode moet aan die vereistes van regverdigheid en redelikheid voldoen. Hierdie werkstuk fokus en ontleed die hantering van die BTW aangegaan deur die ondernemer met die doel om die korrekte insetbelasting aftrekking te bepaal.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86495
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