The effect of irrigation and canopy management on selected vegetative growth and reproductive parameters of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz in the Breede River Valley

Stolk, Robert (2014-04)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2014

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to determine combined effects of irrigation and canopy management practices on grapevine water status, growth, yield and juice characteristics. The field study was carried out with Shiraz/110R grapevines in the Breede River Valley. Grapevines were drip irrigated at 30%, 60% and 90% plant available water (PAW) depletion, respectively. For each PAW level, grapevines had (i) suckered, vertical shoot positioned (VSP), (ii) non-suckered, VSP and (iii) sprawling canopies. Treatments were replicated three times in a randomised block design and applied during the 2011/12 and 2012/13 seasons. Irrigation applied at low PAW depletion levels, i.e. high frequency irrigation, required substantially higher irrigation volumes compared to high depletion levels, i.e. low frequency irrigation. Low frequency irrigation increased grapevine water constraints compared to high frequency irrigation. Sprawling canopy grapevines experienced more water constraints than VSP grapevines. Grapevines irrigated at 90% PAW depletion experienced strong water constraints. Low frequency irrigation seemed to accelerate berry ripening compared to high frequencies, probably due to smaller berries and lower yields. Sprawling canopies consistently enhanced berry ripening due to more sunlight interception by the leaves. Berry ripening of VSP grapevines was slower, but inconsistent between seasons. Level of PAW depletion and canopy management practice did not affect number of leaves per primary shoot. Low frequency irrigation reduced number of leaves per secondary shoot. Leaf number per shoot contributed more to total leaf area than leaf size. Level of PAW depletion did not affect number of shoots per grapevine. Suckering reduced number of shoots per grapevine. Low frequency irrigation reduced total leaf area per grapevine compared to high frequency irrigation. Effects of canopy management practice were more pronounced in the case of high frequency irrigation compared to low frequency irrigation. At pruning, primary cane length was not affected by level of PAW depletion or canopy management practice. Secondary cane mass and diameter were not affected by canopy management practice. Multiple linear regression showed that cane mass was a function of cane length and diameter. Low frequency irrigation reduced berry mass compared to high frequency irrigation, irrespective of canopy management practice. However, at harvest there was no difference in berry mass between 30% and 60% PAW depletion. Low irrigation The objective of the study was to determine combined effects of irrigation and canopy management practices on grapevine water status, growth, yield and juice characteristics. The field study was carried out with Shiraz/110R grapevines in the Breede River Valley. Grapevines were drip irrigated at 30%, 60% and 90% plant available water (PAW) depletion, respectively. For each PAW level, grapevines had (i) suckered, vertical shoot positioned (VSP), (ii) non-suckered, VSP and (iii) sprawling canopies. Treatments were replicated three times in a randomised block design and applied during the 2011/12 and 2012/13 seasons. Irrigation applied at low PAW depletion levels, i.e. high frequency irrigation, required substantially higher irrigation volumes compared to high depletion levels, i.e. low frequency irrigation. Low frequency irrigation increased grapevine water constraints compared to high frequency irrigation. Sprawling canopy grapevines experienced more water constraints than VSP grapevines. Grapevines irrigated at 90% PAW depletion experienced strong water constraints. Low frequency irrigation seemed to accelerate berry ripening compared to high frequencies, probably due to smaller berries and lower yields. Sprawling canopies consistently enhanced berry ripening due to more sunlight interception by the leaves. Berry ripening of VSP grapevines was slower, but inconsistent between seasons. Level of PAW depletion and canopy management practice did not affect number of leaves per primary shoot. Low frequency irrigation reduced number of leaves per secondary shoot. Leaf number per shoot contributed more to total leaf area than leaf size. Level of PAW depletion did not affect number of shoots per grapevine. Suckering reduced number of shoots per grapevine. Low frequency irrigation reduced total leaf area per grapevine compared to high frequency irrigation. Effects of canopy management practice were more pronounced in the case of high frequency irrigation compared to low frequency irrigation. At pruning, primary cane length was not affected by level of PAW depletion or canopy management practice. Secondary cane mass and diameter were not affected by canopy management practice. Multiple linear regression showed that cane mass was a function of cane length and diameter. Low frequency irrigation reduced berry mass compared to high frequency irrigation, irrespective of canopy management practice. However, at harvest there was no difference in berry mass between 30% and 60% PAW depletion. Low irrigation.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doelwit van hierdie studie was om die gekombineerde effek van besproeiing en lowerbestuurspraktyke op wingerd waterstatus, groei, opbrengs en druiwesap eienskappe te bepaal. Die veld studie is uitgevoer met Shiraz/110R wingerdstokke in die Breede Rivier Vallei. Wingerdstokke was d.m.v. drupbesproeiing teen 30%, 60% en 90% plant beskikbare water (PBW) ontrekking, onderskeidelik besproei. Vir elke PBW ontrekkingspeil, was wingerdstokke (i) gesuier en vertikale lootposisionering toegepas, (ii) ongesuier en vertikale lootposisionering toegepas en (iii) geen lowerbestuur toegepas nie (lowers wat oophang). Behandelings is drie keer in ‘n ewekansige blokontwerp herhaal en tydens die 2011/12 en 2012/13 seisoene toegepas. Besproeiing wat teen ‘n lae PBW ontrekkingspeil toegedien is, d.w.s. hoë frekwensie besproeiing, vereis aansienlik hoër besproeiings volumes i.v.m. hoë besproeiing ontrekkingspeile, d.w.s. lae frekwensie besproeiing. Wingerdstokke wat oopgehang het meer watertekorte as vertikaal lootgeposisioneerde wingerdstokke ervaar. Wingerdstokke wat teen 90% PBW ontrekking besproei was, het sterk watertekorte ervaar. Dit het voorgekom of lae frekwensie besproeiing korrelrypwording versnel het i.v.m. hoë frekwensie besproeiing. Dit was heelwaarskynlik a.g.v. kleiner korrels en laer opbrengste. Wingerdstokke wat oophang het, het konsekwent korrelrypwording versnel a.g.v. meer sonligonderskepping deur die blare. Korrelrypwording van vertikaal lootgeposisioneerde wingerdstokke was stadiger, maar teenstrydig tussen die seisoene. Plant beskikbare water ontrekkingspeil en lowerbestuurspraktyke het geen invoeld gehad op die aantal blare per primêre loot nie. Lae frekwensie besproeiing het die aantal blare per sekondêre loot verminder. Die hoeveelheid blare per loot het ‘n groter bygedra gemaak i.v.m. blaar grootte. Plant beskikbare water ontrekkingspeil het geen invloed gehad op die aantal lote per wingerdstok nie. Suier verminder die aantal lote per wingerdstok. Lae frekwensie besproeiing verminder die totale blaar oppervlak i.v.m. hoë frekwensie besproeiing. Die effek van lowerebestuurspraktyke is duideliker sigbaar by hoë frekwensie besproeiing i.v.m. lae frekwensie besproeiing. Primêre lootlengte was nie deur PBW ontrekkingspeil of lowerbestuurspraktyke beïnvloed nie. Sekondêre lootmassa en -deursnit is nie deur lowerbestuurspraktyk beïnvloed nie. Meervoudige lineêre regressie het getoon dat lootmassa ‘n funksie van lootlengte en -deursnit was. Lae frekwensie besproeiing het korrelmassa verminder ongeag die lowerbestuurspraktyk i.v.m. hoë frekwensie besproeiing. Daar was egter geen verskil in korrelmassa by oes tussen 30% en 60% PBW ontrekking nie. Lae frekwensie besproeiing was geneig om suiker akkumulasie te versnel i.v.m. hoë frekwensie besproeiing. Wingerdstokke wat oopgehang het, het veral by lae frekwensie besproeiing korrelrypwording versnel i.v.m. vertikaal lootgeposisioneeide wingerdstokke. Suikerinhoud per korrel het geneig om toe te neem totdat dit ‘n plato bereik het. Hierdie plato was meer prominent by hoë frekwensie besproeiing i.v.m. lae frekwensie besproeiing. Wingerdstokke wat oopgehang het, het ook hierdie plato vroeër bereik i.v.m. vertikaal lootgeposisioneerde wingerdstokke. By oes was die totale titreerbare suur (TTS) hoër vir wingerdstokke wat vroeër geoes was. As gevolg van versnelde rypwording was TTS van wingerdstokke wat teen lae frekwensie besproei is hoër i.v.m. hoë frekwensie besproeiing. ‘n Ligter oeslading in verhouding tot ‘n hoër blaaroppervlak het ook gelei tot hoër TTS by oes. Plant beskikbare water ontrekkingspeil en lowerbestuurspraktyke het geen invloed op die pH gehad met oes nie. Die hoeveelheid trosse per wingerdstok het nie duidelike tendense gewys wat verbind kon word met watertekorte wat deur die stokke ervaar is nie. Gesuierde vertikaal lootgeposisioneerde wingerdstokke het die hoeveelheid trosse per stok verminder i.v.m. die ongesuierde vertikaal lootgeposisioneerde wingerdstokke en wingerstokke wat oopgehang het. Trosmassa het dieselfde tendense as korrels per tros gevolg. Lae frekwensie besproeiing het opbrengs aansienlik verminder i.v.m. hoë frekwensie besproeiing. Gesuierde vertikaal lootgeposisioneerde wingerdstokke het geneig om opbrengste te verminder i.v.m. ongesuierde vertikaal lootgeposisioneerde wingerdstokke. Hierdie effek het egter verdwyn waar wingerdstokke teen 90% PBW ontrekking besproei was. Druif skade a.g.v. suurvrot was meer prominent by hoë frekwensie besproeiing, veral vir ongesuierde vertikaal lootgeposisioneerde wingerdstokke. Total opbrengs verlies, uitgedruk as ‘n persentasie, was hoofsaaklik ‘n funksie van sonbrand eerder as ‘n funksie van suurvrot.

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