Metabolic, genetic and physiological responses to SO2 exposure and nutrient-limiting conditions in Brettanomyces bruxellensis

Louw, Marli (2014-04)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Brettanomyces bruxellensis has become of increasing interest over the past few decades yet this complex red wine spoilage yeast is still poorly understood and strain variance also leads to the contradictory results reported in literature. This yeast is responsible for the production of phenolic compounds, associated with off-flavours that render wine unpalatable. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is the most commonly used antioxidant and antimicrobial preservative instrumental in the control of spoilage yeasts such as B. bruxellensis. However, its diploid/triploid genome is enriched for genes that provide the yeast a fortuitous advantage, under conditions permissive for growth, with genotype-dependent SO2 tolerance phenotypes observed among numerous strains. This study investigates the metabolic, physiological and genetic responses associated with SO2 exposure. It also explores the environmental cues responsible for the onset of non-SO2 induced morphological characteristics. These morphological characteristics were investigated using fluorescent probes and microscopy in the presence of SO2 and in the absence thereof, in YPD media. Pseudohyphae formation was observed to be a highly strain dependent feature and less pronounced in the presence of 0.6 mg/L molecular SO2. This study also reports on the metabolic response observed over a 3-week period, following exposure to SO2, in a synthetic wine medium. The following metabolites were consistently monitored during the course of the experiment: acetic acid, acetaldehyde, D-glucose and D-fructose. Utilization of sugars was retarded in the presence of SO2 for up to 10 days in the presence of 1.2 mg/L molecular SO2 and overproduction of acetaldehyde was prominent, with a peak at day 10. The study further highlights the expression profiles observed for the SSU1 gene (referring to SO2 tolerance) and the PAD gene (referring to production of volatile compounds) under SO2 induced conditions in SWM, using qRT-PCR. The co-involvement of increased acetaldehyde production and elevated gene expression were indicative of B. bruxellensis yeast adapting to the presence of molecular SO2, allowing survival of this fascinating yeast. Sequencing of the SSU1 and PAD genes suggests the probable existence of different alleles of these genes that could explicate SO2 tolerance and phenolic compound production associated differences among strains of this species.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hoewel Brettanomyces bruxellensis oor die afgelope paar dekades toenemende belangstelling gewek het, word hierdie komplekse rooiwynbederfgis steeds swak verstaan en lei rasvariasie ook tot teenstrydige resultate in die literatuur. Hierdie gis is verantwoordelik vir die produksie van fenoliese verbindings, wat geassosieer word met afgeure, wat die wyn onsmaaklik laat. Swaweldioksied (SO2) is die algemeenste preserveermiddel wat, weens antioksidant- en antimikrobiese eienskappe, instrumenteel in die beheer van bederforganismes, soos B. bruxellensis, gebruik word. Nogtans is die diploïede/triploïede genoom vir gene verryk, wat die gis ‘n toevallige voordeel bied tydens ongunstige toestande, met genotipe-afhanklike SO2 weerstandbiedende fenotipes wat onder verskeie rasse waargeneem word. Hierdie studie ondersoek die metaboliese, fisologiese en genetiese reaksies tydens SO2-blootstelling. Dit bestudeer verder die omgewingsleidrade wat vir die aanvang van die nie-SO2 geassosiseerde morfologiese eienskappe verantwoordelik is. Hierdie morfologiese eienskappe is ondersoek met behulp van fluoresserende bakens en mikroskopie in die teenwoordigheid van molekulêre SO2 en, in die afwesigheid daarvan, in YPD-medium. Pseudohyphae-vorming is as ʼn baie rasspesifieke eienskap waargeneem en is minder prominent in die teenwoordigheid van molekulêre SO2. Hierdie studie rappoteer ook oor die metaboliese reaksies waargeneem oor ‘n 3-weke tydperk, na blootstelling aan SO2, in ‘n sintetiese wynmedium. Die volgende metaboliete was voordurend gemonitor tydens die verloop van die eksperiment: asynsuur, asetaldehied, D-glukose en D-fruktose. Benutting van die suikers is in die teenwoordigheid van SO2 vertraag en oorproduksie van asetaldehied is prominent waargeneem. Hierdie studie beklemtoon verder die uitdrukkingsprofiele vir die SSU1-geen (verwys na SO2-weerstandbiedendheid) en die PAD-geen (verwys na die produksie van vlugtige verbindings) in SO2-geïnduseerde toestande in SWM, met behulp van qRT-PCR. Die gesamentlike invloed van beide verhoogde asetaldehied produksie en verhoogde uitdrukking van gene, was beduidend van B. bruxellensis-gis wat aanpas in die teenwoordigheid van molekulêre SO2, wat die oorlewing van hierdie fassinerende gis verseker. Volgordebepaling van die SSU1- en PAD-geen dui daarop dat daar waarskynlik meer as een verskillende alleel vir dié gene bestaan, wat die SO2-verdraagsaamheid en produksie van fenoliese verbindings, wat tans tussen verskeie spesies teenwoordig is, kan verduidelik.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86465
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