A history of tourism, leisure and adventure in the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic, c.1895 to present

Hanekom, Wouter Pierre (2014-04)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis deals with the nature and historical development of tourism and leisure activities that have been conducted within the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions from 1895 to present. First, it traces the brief history of human involvement with the Antarctic continent, which culminated in a surge of ostensibly scientific exploration with jingoistic overtones which has become widely known as the ‘Heroic Age’ of Antarctic exploration. These explorers’ adventures, taken up by the popular press and promoted by jingoistic governments, popularised a particular conception of the continent to the point where people imagined going to see it for themselves, vicariously reliving their heroes’ adventures in the form of tourism. The rise of formal governance on the Antarctic is then traced and used to explain how this provided for regular tourist activities to commence since the mid-1960s. The changing nature of tourism to the region is surveyed, as well as its impact on the environment. Finally, Marion Island, South Africa’s Sub-Antarctic Island, is discussed through the lens of tourism and leisure. Tourism has not been permitted on the island, so it offers a useful comparison with other sub-Antarctic islands that do allow tourists to visit. The thesis also deals with masculinity, as the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic were male dominated environments for the majority of human interaction with these regions. The thesis argues that the accumulation of knowledge in these areas by scientists has (perhaps counter-intuitively) led to the creation of the tourism industry, which would not have been able to flourish without the constant human presence secured by the scientific bases scattered around the Antarctic. Finally, this thesis offers a form of autoethnographic historical investigation, as an insider/outsider dichotomy (between “scientist” and “tourist”) was explored through embedded research, where scientists and support personnel are viewed as insiders on the one hand, and tourists are regarded as outsiders on the other.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie tesis handel oor die aard en historiese ontwikkeling van toerisme en ontspannings aktiwiteite wat binne die Antarktiese en sub-Antarktiese gebiede onderneem is vanaf 1895 tot die hede. Dit behandel eerstens die kort geskiedenis van menslike betrokkenheid op die Antarktiese vasteland, wat uitgeloop het op 'n oplewing van oënskynlik wetenskaplike eksplorasie met nasionalistiese konnotasies wat wyd bekend geword het as die ‘Helde Era’ van Antarktiese verkenning. Hierdie ontdekkingsreisigers se avonture, soos weerspieël in die populêre pers en bevorder deur nasionalistiese regerings, het 'n bepaalde opvatting van die vasteland gewild gemaak. Soveel so dat dit mense beweeg het om as toeriste die gebied te besoek en op die wyse hul helde se avonture te herleef in die vorm van toerisme. Die opkoms van die formele beheer van die Antarktiese vasteland word dan nagespeur en gebruik om aan te dui hoe dit teen die middel 1960’s tot aktiewe toerisme in die gebied aanleiding gegee het. Die veranderende aard van toerisme na die streek, sowel as die impak daarvan op die omgewing word ondersoek. Ten slotte, word Marion Island, Suid-Afrika se Sub-Antarktiese eiland bespreek deur die lens van toerisme en ontspanning. Toerisme word nie op die eiland toegelaat nie, wat hom leun tot 'n nuttige vergelyking met ander sub-Antarktiese eilande wat wel toerisme toelaat. Aangesien die meerderheid van die menslike interaksie met Antarktieka en die sub- Antarktiese eilande deur mans gedomineer is, handel die tesis ook oor manlikheid. Die tesis argumenteer dat die opbou van kennis in hierdie gebiede deur wetenskaplikes (miskien teenintuïtief) gelei het tot die skepping van die toerisme-bedryf, wat nie in staat sou gewees het om te floreer sonder die konstante menslike teenwoordigheid, wat deur die wetenskaplike basisse versprei oor die Antarktieka verskaf is nie. Ten slotte, bied hierdie tesis 'n vorm van ń etnografiese historiese ondersoek in die vorm van ń binnestaander / buitestaander teenstelling (tussen "wetenskaplike" en "toeris"), waar wetenskaplikes en ondersteunings personeel as binnestaanders, en toeriste, as buitestaanders beskou word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86454
This item appears in the following collections: