The analysis of starch degradation in Solanaceae species

Samodien, Mugammad Ebrahim (2014-04)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This project involved the analysis of genes in Solanaceae species that have previously been shown to be involved in the phosphorylation of starch or its subsequent dephosphorylation. Both these processes are essential for normal starch mobilization. A tomato conditional mutant lacking the starch phosphorylating enzyme glucan water dikinase was analyzed. It is known that starch accumulates transiently in tomato fruit and is degraded throughout the ripening process. The study aimed to determine the effect of inhibited starch degradation on fruit development. Unfortunately no effect on starch mobilisation was found in the fruit of the mutant. Immunoblot analysis revealed expression of Glucan Water Dikinase (GWD) within the fruit of the tomato mutant indicating that the conditionality of the mutation was compromised. The second set of experiments analyzed the roles of Starch Excess4 (SEX4), Like Sex Four-1 and Like Sex Four-2 (LSF1 and LSF2) in starch degradation in potato and Nicotiana benthamiana. These enzymes have, thus far, only been studied in Arabidopsis, with the proposed role for SEX4 and LSF2 being that they are involved in dephosphorylation of the C-6 and C-3 positions of starch breakdown products. The role of LSF1 is unclear, although it is not thought to be a phosphatase. SEX4, LSF1 and LSF2 were repressed individually while the expression of SEX4 and LSF2 were also inhibited simultaneously. Using a transient repression system in N. benthamiana it was shown that all of the genes play a role in leaf starch degradation. The SEX4 and LSF2 enzymes were shown to influence the proportion of phosphate located on the starch which contained an altered ratio of C-3/C-6 phosphate. Stably transformed potato plants were produced where SEX4 and LSF2 were successfully repressed in potato leaves and tubers. Although AtLSF2 had been shown not to be essential for normal starch degradation on its own, in potato plants when LSF2 was repressed, the plants developed a starch-excess phenotype. Taken together with the N. benthamiana data this indicates that LSF2 plays a bigger role in leaf starch degradation in Solanaceae than in Arabidopsis. The ratio of C-3/C-6 phosphate was also altered in tuber starch from some of the silenced plants. Starch from SEX4 repressed potato plants contained increased amounts of glucose-6-phosphate and increased glucose-3-phosphate in the tuber when compared to the WT. An increase in the proportion of C-6 or C-3 phosphate is not surprising with SEX4 being characterized as a phosphatase specific for C-6 position and LSF2 for the C-3 position in Arabidopsis, however the combined increase in C-3 and C-6 amounts in StSEX4 silenced plants is interesting. The differences seen in the phosphate alteration in both N. benthamiana leaves and potato tubers indicates that in Solanaceae species these proteins may have a slightly altered specificity when compared with Arabidopsis, although they are undoubtedly involved in starch degradation. The effect of silencing SEX4 or LSF2 on cold-induced sweetening was also investigated, with no effect being found. This may be because of functional redundancy between the proteins and a better approach in terms of blocking cold sweetening would be to simultaneously repress SEX4 and LSF2. Overall, these enzymes seem to play similar roles in leaves of Solanum species as has been described in Arabidopsis. The starch from the engineered plants did have an altered phosphate ratio and further analysis is needed to determine if this leads to improved or additional functionality.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die projek omhels die ontleding van gene van die Solanaceae spesie wat voorheengetoon het dat hulle deel neem in fosforilering of defosforilering van stysel. Altwee van hierdie reaksies is belangrik vir normale stysel metabolisme. ‘n Tamatie konditionele mutant was geanaliseer waarin die stysel fosforilering ensiem glucan water dikinase nie teenwoordig was nie. Die doel van die studie was om te ondersoek watter effek het n gebrek in stysel afbraak op die rypwording en ontwokkeling vrugte. Ongelukkig was geen effek op stysel metabolism in die munant se vrugte gesien. Immunoklad analise het getoon dat GWD protein wel uitdruk word in die vrugte en dus die mutant nie heeltemal effektief was nie. Die tweede stel van experimente het in aartappels en tabak die rol van SEX4, LSF1 en LSF2 in stysel afbraak ondersoek. Hierdie ensieme was huidiglik nog net deeglik in Arabidopsis bestudeer, waar daar gewys was dat SEX4 and LSF2 in die defosforilering van stysel by die C-6 en C-3 posisie deel neem. Die rol van LSF1 is nog onbekend, maar daar word huiglik gelgo dat dit is nie ‘n fosfatase nie. SEX4, LSF1, en LSF2 was onderdruk op sy eie, waar SEX4 en LSF2 gelyktydig onderdruk was. Met behulp van n verbygaande onderdrukking in tabak, was dit getoon dat al die bogenoemde gene n gedeeltelike rol speel in die afbraak van stysel. Dit was getoon dat SEX4 and LSF2 ensiemedie verhouding van waar fosfaat op stysel gelee is beinvloed en het n verandering in die C-3/C-6 phosphaat verhouding ook gehad. Aardappels was stabiel getransformeer en daar was suksesfol plante waar SEX4 en LSF2 onderdruk was in blare en knolle geproduseer. Alhoewel daar getoon was dat AtLSF2 op sy eie nie n groot rol speel in stysel katabolisme nie was daar wel gesien dat in aardappel wanner hierdie geen afgeskakel was dat daar n stysel oorskot fenotiepe ontwikkel. As die tabak resultate saamgevat word met die aardappel wil dit voorkom asof LSF2 n groter rol binne die stysel katabolisme in Solanaceae speel as in Arabidopsis. Daar was gevind dat die verhouding van C-3/C-6 fosfaat was in die knolle verander in perty van die lyne waar geen afskakeling wel plaasgevind het. Die verhouding van C-3/C-6 fosfaat was verander in knolle stysel van sommige stilgemaak plante. Sysel van SEX4 stilgemaak plante het hoër vlakke glukose-6-fosfaat en glukose-3-fosfaat in die knolle gehad wanner dit met die WT vergelyk was. n Toename in die persentasie van C-6 fosfaat is nie verbasend nie, SEX4 word gekenmerk as die spesifieke fosfatase verantwoordelik vir die fosfaat by die C-6 posisie en LSF2 spesifiek vir die C-3 posisie in Arabidopsis. Die gekombineerde toename in beide C-6 en C-3 bedrae in StSEX4 stilgemaak plante is wel heel interesant. Verandering in beide tabak blare and aartapple knolle dui daarop dat in solanacea spesie hierdie proteiene, n effens verandering in spesifisiteit kan hê as dit met Arabidopsis vergelyk word. Daar kan wel nie getwyfel word dat hulle wel n rol speel in stysel afbraak nie. Die effect watSEX4 of LSF2 op koue-geinduseerde soetheid het is ook ondersoek maar daar was geen effek gevind nie. Dit mag wees asgevolg van die funksionele onslag tussen die twee proteien en better benadering on die koue-soetheids effek te verhoed sou wees om beide protein op die selfde stadium aft e skakel. As daar in gegeheel gekyk word lyk dit asof hierdie protein die selfde rolle het in die Solanum spesies as in Arabidopsis.Die stysel van hierdie die ontwerpte plante het ‘n veranderde fosfaat verhouding getoon en veder analise is nodig om te bepaal of dit lei tot verbeterde einskappe of bykommende funksies.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86440
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