Towards a theoretically motivated model for the lexicographic representation of Kinyarwanda phrasemes in General Kinyarwanda Dictionaries

Nikuze, Emmanuel (2014-04)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The decision to investigate the lexicographic representation of Kinyarwanda phrasemes has been motivated by two problems. Firstly, the compilers of Kinyarwanda general dictionaries do not take cognisance of the wide-ranging nature of Kinyarwanda phrasemes. As a result, the confusion of different types of phrasemes entails inadequate treatment of phraseology in Kinyarwanda dictionaries. Furthermore, some types of phrasemes are mistakenly left out or under-represented in Kinyarwanda dictionaries due to the fact that the multifaceted nature of Kinyarwanda phrasemes is not recognised. Secondly, the representation of phrasemes in current Kinyarwanda dictionaries is unsatisfactory as far as data presentation, distribution and accessibility is concerned. Therefore, not only is the multifaceted nature of phrasemes not reflected in the representation of phrasemes in Kinyarwanda dictionaries but Kinyarwanda dictionaries also fall short as far as the application of adequate metalexicographic principles and tools is concerned. It is anticipatively argued that the use of innovative tools and suggestions offered by the contemporary theoretical lexicography coupled with insights from the linguistic classification of phrasemes will enable a user-friendly presentation of phrasemes in general dictionaries of Kinyarwanda. This thesis attempts to bring solutions to these shortcomings by formulating theoretically motivated proposals for lexicographic representation of phraseological items in Kinyarwanda general dictionaries. To achieve this goal and in order to formulate a model for lexicographic representation of phrasemes this study uses a positivist approach and utilises two theories of lexicography, namely the functional theory of lexicography mainly developed by Bergenholtz and Tarp and the general theory of lexicography outlined by Wiegand. The theory of lexicographic functions provided this study with decisive heuristics such as the concept of user situation, lexicographic function and user profile that have been employed to devise a function-motivated model of lexicographic representation of different types of phrasemes. Insights from the theory of dictionary structures were used to determine how various dictionary structures could be used to position phrasemes in the dictionary so that easy access is secured. These theories helped formulate policies for inclusion and treatment of different classes of phrasemes taking into account the function that the dictionary is purported to fulfil and the role different structures of the dictionary play in user-friendly distribution of lexicographic data. In addition, this research relied on various sources of data and used a qualitative approach to data analysis and argument construction. In Chapter 3 the concept of phraseme in the framework of Meaning-Text linguistics is defined and various pitfalls in lexicographic representation of phrasemes in existing dictionaries of Kinyarwanda are addressed. In Chapter 4, proposals have been made regarding both straight lemmatisation and sublemmatisation of Kinyarwanda idioms in the central list whereby the proposed models have been evaluated taking into account different lexicographic functions. In addition, suggestions have been made as to how to use both the central list section and the outer texts, especially the back matter and the middle matter to present proverbs in general language dictionaries of Kinyarwanda. Further, a model for lexicographic presentation of collocations has been formulated in Chapter 5, taking into account four lexicographic functions: text production, text translation, text reception and cognitive-oriented dictionary. In this chapter it is shown what the representation of collocations could look like when satisfying each of the above-mentioned lexicographic functions. Finally two models for the lexicographic representation of pragmatemes or pragmatic phrasemes are proposed in Chapter 6. In this chapter, both the internal-article treatment of pragmatemes in the central list and the presentation of pragmatemes in the outer texts are discussed and evaluated. Chapter 7 outlines the summary of major research findings along with related recommendations on the lexicographic treatment of different types of phrasemes and assesses whether the initial research questions have been properly answered, while at the same time paving the way for further research and more comprehensive discussions.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die besluit om die leksikografiese verteenwoordiging van Kinyarwanda fraseme te ondersoek, word deur twee probleme gemotiveer. Eerstens word die uiteenlopende aard van Kinyarwanda fraseme nie deur die samestellers van algemene woordeboeke vir Kinyarwanda in ag geneem nie. Die verwarring van die verskillende tipes fraseme lei tot onvoldoende hantering van fraseologie in Kinyarwanda woordeboeke. Voorts word sekere tipes fraseme eenvoudig uit Kinyarwanda woordeboeke weggelaat of swak verteenwoordig, juis omdat die veelsydige aard van Kinyarwanda fraseme misgekyk word. Tweedens is die verteenwoordiging van fraseme in die bestaande Kinyarwanda woordeboeke onbevredigend wat betref die aanbod, verspreiding en toeganklikheid van data. Daarom word die veelsydige aard van fraseme nie net swak verteenwoordig in Kinyarwanda woordeboeke nie, maar sodanige woordeboeke skiet ook ver te kort wat die toepassing van voldoende metaleksikografiese beginsels en toepassings betref. Daar word vooruitskouend ‘n saak voor uitgemaak dat die gebruik van innoverende instrumente en voorstelle vanuit die kontemporêre teoretiese leksikografie tesame met insigte oor die linguistiese klassifikasie van fraseme, ‘n gebruikersvriendelike fraseemaanbod in Kinyarwanda algemene woordeboeke sal bewerkstellig. Hierdie tesis probeer om oplossings vir die tekortkominge te bied deur middel van teoreties gemotiveerde voorstelle vir die leksikografiese verteenwoordiging van fraseologiese items in Kinyarwanda algemene woordeboeke. Om hierdie doel te verwesenlik en om ‘n model vir die leksikografiese verteenwoordiging van fraseme te ontwikkel, word ‘n positivistiese benadering gevolg en word twee leskikografieteorieë, naamlik die funksionele teorie, hoofsaaklik ontwikkel deur Bergenholtz en Tarp, en die algemene leksikografieteorie soos uiteengesit deur Wiegand, toegepas. Die teorie van leksikografiese funksies het hierdie studie van bepalende, deurslaggewende riglyne voorsien, soos die konsep van die gebruiker se situasie, die leksikografiese funksie, en die gebruikersprofiel wat gebruik is om ‘n funksie-gemotiveerde model van leksikografiese verteenwoordiging vir die verskillende tipes fraseme op te stel. Daarbenewens is insigte uit die woordeboekstruktuurteorie aangewend om te bepaal hoe verskillende woordeboekstrukture gebruik kan word om fraseme sodanig in woordeboeke te posisioneer dat vinnige en maklike toegang verseker word. Hierdie teorieë het bygedra tot beleidsformulering vir die insluiting en hantering van verskillende klasse fraseme met inagname van die veronderstelde woordeboekfunksie en die rol wat verskillende woordeboekstrukture in die gebruikersvriendelike verspreiding van leksikografiese data speel. Die navorsing het ook op verskeie databronne staatgemaak en ‘n kwalitatiewe benadering tot data-analise en argumentkonstruksie is gebruik. In hoofstuk 3 is die konsep fraseem binne die raamwerk van die linguistiese teorie van Meaning-Text (Betekenis-Teks) gedefinieer en verskeie slaggate in die leksikografiese verteenwoordiging van fraseme in bestaande Kinyarwanda woordeboeke word ondersoek. In hoofstuk 4 word voorstelle ten opsigte van die gewone lemmatisering en sublemmatisering van Kinyarwanda idiome in die sentrale lys bespreek en die voorgestelde modelle word geёvalueer met inagname van die verskillende leksikografiese funksies. Daarbenewens word voorstelle gemaak oor hoe om sowel die sentrale lys as die buitetekste, veral die agter- en middelteks, te gebruik om spreekwoorde in Kinyarwanda woordeboeke vir algemene taal aan te bied. ‘n Model vir die leksikografiese voorstelling van kollokasies word in hoofstuk 5 geformuleer. Vier leksikografiese funksies word in ag geneem, naamlik teksproduksie, teksvertaling, teksresepsie en kognitief-georiёnteerde woordeboeke. Daar word aangetoon hoe kollokasies verteenwoordig kan word sodat elk van die bogenoemde leksikografiese funksies in ag geneem word. Twee modelle vir die leksikografiese verteenwoordiging van pragmateme of pragmatiese fraseme word in hoofstuk 6 voorgestel. Sowel die interne-artikelhantering van pragmateme as die hantering van pragmateme in die buitetekste word bespreek en evalueer. Ten slotte word die belangrikste navorsingsresultate saam met ander voorstelle ten opsigte van die leksikografiese hantering van verskillende tipes fraseme in hoofstuk 7 uitgelig. Daar word ook gekyk of die navorsingsvrae behoorlik beantwoord is, terwyl die weg gebaan word vir verdere navorsing en meer omvattende bespreking.

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