hiResilient response and performance of bitumen stabilized materials with foam incorporating reclaimed asphalt

Dal Ben, Matteo (2014-04)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The increased use of reclaimed asphalt (RA) in Bitumen Stabilised Materials (BSMs), shortcomings in the existing design guidelines and manuals and ongoing developments in the concepts and understanding of these materials require further research into the fundamental properties and behaviour of BSMs. The state-of-the-art of foamed bitumen techniques is reviewed in the literature study. Current best practices in the design of BSMs and pavements incorporating such materials are also included in this literature study. Shortcomings and areas for further improvement of the design practice have been identified. With new environmental legislation, the importance of BSM technology including RA as an environmentally-friendlier and more sustainable construction technique is set to increase in the coming years. Changes in the behaviour of materials and failure mechanisms of BSM mixes are long-term phenomena. This implies that the study of the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the mixes with increasing amount of RA is vital. Therefore, fundamental understandings of moisture damage and thermo-physical characteristics, which are related to material properties, are required. The main objective of this study is to advance BSM technology by assessing the influence of the selected materials on durability behaviour, temperature distribution and long-term performance in all phases of application (i.e. mix design, construction, and in-service condition). This study begins with a comprehensive literature review of research dealing with the interactions between RA and mineral aggregates. The properties of RA and mineral aggregates were reviewed. This was followed by a review into the mechanical properties of BSM-foam mixes with high percentage of RA and its durability performance. Factors influencing the temperature gradient of BSMs were then identified. Achieving a better understanding of the fundamental performance properties and temperature influence on the behaviour of BSMs with high percentage of RA is one of the key factors of this research, with a view to using the extended knowledge for improvements to current mix design and structural design practices. Finally, the fundamental theories on thermo-conductivity and the mechanical properties of the BSM were used to create a relationship between temperature and mechanical properties in a pavement section. A laboratory testing programme was set up to study the properties and behaviour of BSMs and to establish links with the compositional factors, i.e. the type of binder used, the percentage of RA in the mix and the addition of a small amount of cement as active filler. BSMs were blended in three different proportions of RA and good quality crushed stone materials: 100% RA (with 2 % bitumen content), 50% RA and 50% G2 Hornfels crushed stone (with 2.1% bitumen content) and 100% G2 (with 2.3 % bitumen content). Tri-axial testing was carried out to determine shear parameters, resilient modulus and permanent deformation behaviour, while brushing testing was carried out to determine the possible durability performance of the BSMs. The mixture durability in terms of moisture damage was investigated. Temperature data were collected and a model to accurately simulate the temperature distribution in the BSMs was identified and proposed for further investigation and validation. It was found from the laboratory temperature data collected in this study that the temperature gradient varied according to the depth of the BSMs. A considerable part of the efforts of this study were dedicated to characterise and model the temperature distribution in a pavement section, taking into account the mechanical properties and performance of the BSMs at different temperature layers. The study provides an insight into fundamental mechanical performance, material durability properties, and the thermal capacity and conductivity of the BSM-foam mixes with high percentage of RA. This will assist in improving the current procedure for selection, combining and formulation of the mix matrices for BSMs. In addition, the study provides guidelines that will enable practitioners to confidently understand the relationship between temperature gradient and mechanical behaviours of BSM-foam pavement section. The specific durability-related issues addressed in this study are substance for future research.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die toenemende gebruik van herwonne asfalt (Engels: reclaimed asphalt (RA)) in bitumen gestabiliseerde materiaal (Engels: Bitumen Stabilised Materials (BSMs)), tekortkominge in die bestaande ontwerpriglyne- en handleidings en deurlopende verbeteringe in die konsepte en begrip van hierdie material vereis verdere navorsing oor die fundamentele eienskappe en gedrag van BSM. In die literatuurstudie word die huidige stand van kennis van die ontwerp van skuimbitumentegnieke ondersoek. Die literatuurstudie dek ook die huidige beste praktyke in die ontwerp van BSM en plaveisels wat hierdie materiale insluit. Tekortkominge en areas van verdere verbetering in die ontwerppraktyke is geïdentifiseer. Onlangse omgewingswetgewing verhoog die belangrikheid van BSM tegnologie, insluitend RA, as ‘n meer omgewingsvriendelike en volhoubare konstruksie-tegniek. Hierdie faktor sal in die toekoms al hoe belangriker word. Die verandering in die gedrag van materiaal en die falingsmeganismes van BSM mengsels is langtermynverskynsels. Dit impliseer dat die studie van die fisio-chemiese en meganiese eienskappe van mengsels met toenemende verhoudings van RA van kardinale belang is’n Fundamentele begrip van die vogskade en temo-fisiese eienskappe, wat verwant is aan die materiale se eienskappe, word vereis. Die primêre doelwit van die studie is die bevordering van BSM tegnologie deur die invloed van die geselekteerde materiale op duursaamheid, temperatuurverspreiding en langtermyn gedrag in al die fases van toepassing (mengselontwerp, konstruksie en in-dienstoestand) te bepaal. Die verhandeling begin met ‘n omvattende literatuuroorsig van navorsing oor die interaksie tussen RA en mineraalaggregate. Die eienskappe van RA en die mineraalaggregate word bespreek. Dit word gevolg deur ‘n oorsig van die meganiese eienskappe van die BSM-skuimbitumenmengsels met ‘n hoë persentasie RA en die duursaamheidgedrag daarvan. Faktore wat die temperatuurgradient van BSM beïnvloed word dan aangetoon. ‘n Beter begrip van die fundamentele gedragseienskappe en die invloed van temperatuur op die gedrag van BSM met ‘n hoë persentasie RA is een van die sleutelfaktore van hierdie navorsing. Dit het ten doel om die uitgebreide kennis te gebruik om huidige mengselontwerp en strukturele ontwerppraktyke te verbeter. Laastens is die fundamentele teorie van termogeleiding en die meganiese eienskappe van BSM gebruik om ‘n verhouding tussen temperature en meganiese eienskappe in ‘n plaveiselsnit te ontwikkel. ‘n Laboratoriumtoetsprogram is opgestel om die eienskappe en gedrag van BSM te bestudeer en om verwantskappe tussen samestellende faktore soos die tipe bindmiddel gebruik, die persentasie RA in die mengsel en die toediening van klein hoeveelhede sement as aktiewe vuller te bepaal. BSM is in drie verskillende verhoudings van RA en goeie gehalte gebreekte klipmateriaal vermeng: 100% RA met 2 % bitumen, 50% RA en 50 % G2 Hornfels gebreekte klip met 2.1 % bitumen en 100% G2 met 2.3 % bitumen. Drie-assige druktoetse is gebruik om skuifsterkteparameters, elastiese modulus en permanente vervormingsgedrag te bepaal. Borseltoetse is gebruik om die duursaamheidgedrag van BSM te bepaal. Die mengsels se duursaamheid is ook in terme van vogskade ondersoek.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86376
This item appears in the following collections: