Democratic citizenship education: implication for teaching and learning in post colonial Mozambique

Guirrugo da Maia, Ivenilde Race (2014-04)

Thesis (MEd)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study deals with an analysis of Mozambican education policy documents, linking this analysis to theories of democratic citizenship education. It suggests that, for Mozambican people to become active citizens who are able to face and challenge their social problems, a deliberative democratic citizenship education has to be adopted in their schools. In such deliberation the citizens should participate equally and freely in different debates and activities, without feeling intimidated by those in power. If such deliberative democratic citizenship education does not exist in schools, the citizens may not be able to recognise their rights and find solutions for the problems in society. The ideas of philosophers of deliberative democratic citizenship education, such as Amy Gutmann and David Thompson, Seyla Benhabib and Iris Marion Young, are used to think about democratic citizenship education in Mozambique. This analysis assists in answering the following research question: ‘Can the education policies in schools contribute to promoting democratic citizenship education in the Mozambican society? If not, what should be done?’ Furthermore, interpretive methodology and analytical inquiry are applied as methods to interpret and understand the education policy documents and to undertake a critical analysis of the concept of democratic citizenship education, as well as of education policy documents. The analysis of Mozambican education policy documents illustrates clearly that the government is concerned about the eradication of illiteracy, by increasing access to education, equality and quality of education, and the preparation of citizens who know their basic rights and can contribute to the development of their communities and democracy. The results demonstrate that the government is achieving some of the goals related to access to education. For instance, the government increased the number of primary schools from 7 013 in 1999 to 11 859 in 2008. However, more still needs to be done with respect to the quality of education. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that Mozambican education policies lack democratic citizenship education. For instance, the education policies were analysed in three distinct periods, namely post-independence, post-civil war and the period of the Millennium Development Goals. The policies are indicated to be inadequate to cultivate democratic citizens in Mozambican society, particularly because there is a need to boost a deliberative democratic citizenship education in schools. For example, in the first period, citizens did not have an opportunity to deliberate and be autonomous citizens in the educative process. Everything was done by the government. In the second period the government allowed the participation of other organisations, communities and institutions in the educative process, but there is no specification of how those citizens participated in the process of decision making. In the third period the government became concerned about important aspects and values of democratic citizenship education that should be taught directly in school. In this context the government introduced Civic and Moral Education and themes to be discussed in the classroom, which potentially will enable citizens to be critical. This situation shows that, in public schools, teachers should educate learners through classroom deliberations. It implies that teachers need to create conditions for the teaching and learning process so that all citizens, independent of their origin, class, sex and race, can participate and work together in deliberation.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie handel oor ’n analise van Mosambiekse onderwysbeleidsdokumente, en verbind hierdie analise aan teorieë van demokratiese burgerskapsonderwys. Dit stel voor dat vir Mosambiekers om aktiewe burgers te word wat die vermoë het om hulle sosiale probleme te konfronteer en uit te daag, ’n beraadslagende demokratiese burgerskapsonderwys in hulle skole nodig is. In sulke beraadslaging moet burgers op ’n gelyke voet en vrylik aan debatte of aktiwiteite deelneem, sonder dat hulle deur die maghebbers geïntimideer word. Indien so ’n beraadslagende demokratiese burgerskapsonderwys nie in die skole bestaan nie, sal burgers moontlik nie hulle regte herken nie en ook nie oplossings vir die samelewing se probleme kan vind nie. Die idees van filosowe van beraadslagende demokratiese burgerskapsonderwys soos Amy Gutmann en David Thompson, Seyla Benhabib en Iris Marion Young is gebruik om demokratiese burgerskapsonderwys in Mosambiek te oorweeg. Hierdie analise dra daartoe by om die volgende navorsingsvraag te beantwoord: ‘Kan die onderwysbeleide in skole ’n bydrae maak tot die bevordering van demokratiese burgerskapsonderwys in die Mosambiekse samelewing? Indien nie, wat moet gedoen word?’ Verder is verklarende metodologie en analitiese ondersoek as metodes gebruik om die onderwysbeleidsdokumente te interpreteer en te verstaan en om ’n kritiese analise van die konsep van demokratiese burgerskapsonderwys, sowel as van die onderwysbeleidsdokumente, te onderneem. Die analise van Mosambiekse onderwysbeleidsdokumente toon duidelik dat die regering ernstig is oor die uitwissing van ongeletterdheid, met toenemende toegang tot onderwys, gelyke en kwaliteitopvoeding, en die voorbereiding van burgers wat bewus is van hulle basiese regte en ’n bydrae kan maak tot die ontwikkeling van hulle gemeenskappe en die demokrasie. Die resultate toon dat die regering sommige van sy doelwitte behaal met betrekking tot toegang tot onderwys. Byvoorbeeld, die regering het die aantal laerskole vermeerder van 7 013 in 1999 tot 11 859 in 2008. Meer moet egter nog gedoen word met betrekking tot die kwaliteit van onderwys. Die studie demonstreer verder dat Mosambiekse onderwysbeleide ’n gebrek aan demokratiese burgerskapsonderwys toon. Die onderwysbeleide is byvoorbeeld in drie afsonderlike tydperke geanaliseer, naamlik ná onafhanklikheid, ná die burgeroorlog en in die tydperk van die Millennium Ontwikkelingsdoelwitte. Die beleide is duidelik onvoldoende om demokratiese burgers in die Mosambiekse samelewing daar te stel, veral omdat daar nog ’n behoefte daaraan is om ’n beraadslagende demokratiese burgerskapsonderwys in skole ’n hupstoot te gee. Byvoorbeeld, in die eerste tydperk is burgers nie die geleentheid gegun om te beraadslaag en as outonome burgers in die onderwysproses op te tree nie. Alles is deur die regering gedoen. In die tweede tydperk het die regering deelname deur ander organisasies, gemeenskappe en instansies in die onderwysproses toegelaat. Maar daar is geen aanduiding van hoe hierdie burgers in die besluitnemingsproses deelgeneem het nie. In die derde tydperk was die regering besorgd oor belangrike aspekte en waardes van demokratiese burgerskapsonderwys wat direk in die skool onderrig moet word. In hierdie konteks het die regering Burgerleer en Sedeleer en temas wat in die klaskamer bespreek moet word, ingevoer wat burgers potensieel sal help om krities te wees. Hierdie situasie toon dat onderwysers in staatskole leerders in klaskamerberaadslaging moet opvoed. Dit impliseer dat onderwysers vir die onderrig- en leerproses toestande moet skep waarin alle burgers, ongeag hulle oorsprong, klas, geslag en ras, kan deelneem en saam kan beraadslaag.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86344
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