'n Direkte vertaling versus 'n abbavertaling met verwysing na kulturele oordrag

Steyn, Johanna E. T. (2014-04)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Most Afrikaans novels that are translated into French are piggyback or relay translations, which means translations of translations. Although piggyback translations have been done since the earliest times and are still being done, they are at best seen as a necessary evil and little research is done on this phenomenon – in fact so little that there is not even a uniform term among scholars to refer to this practice. Translation is the ideal space for different cultures to meet and interact, especially when the translation strategy is to foreignise by retaining cultural elements form the source culture in the translated text. Each translation is however adapted to a certain extent to its own target culture in order for the target public to have a better understanding of the text. When a translator works directly with the source text, he is in control about the way in which cultural references will be conveyed and explained to the target public. In the case of a piggyback translation the translator has to translate a “source text” that has already been adapted, or not, for a specific target public. The piggyback translator has to deal with a text where some cultural references might have been retained and others not. If the piggyback translator has no first-hand knowledge of the source culture, it means that he will not be able to distinguish which references have been adapted, nor to what extent they have been adapted. This study is an investigation into the French translations of two novels by Etienne van Heerden, namely Toorberg and Die swye van Mario Salviati. Le Domaine de Toorberg is a piggyback translation of Toorberg and Un long silence has been translated directly from the Afrikaans source text. The aim is to determine in which of the two French translations cultural transfer was the most successful. In translation studies great emphasis is placed on the fact that translators should not only be bilingual, but also bicultural, which means that the translator should understand both source and target cultures. In the case of the direct translation investigated here, the translator is not only bilingual, but he shows a South African and French biculturality. In the case of the piggyback translation however, the translator’s cultures are French and North American. This means that the piggyback translator has no first-hand knowledge of the source culture with the result that the cultural references are unknown to her. I hope to determine through this study whether piggyback translations are a viable method to present Afrikaans novels to (in this case) French readers and if not, whether alternative methods should be investigated, for example using translators who do not necessarily translate into their first language, as often suggested in translation studies.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die meeste Afrikaanse romans wat in Frans vertaal word, is abbavertalings, dit wil sê, vertalings van vertalings. Alhoewel abbavertalings reeds vanaf die vroegste tye gedoen word en steeds gedoen word, word dit ten beste gesien as ʼn onvermydelike euwel en daar word min navorsing oor hierdie verskynsel gedoen – so min dat daar nie eens onder teoretici ʼn eenvormige term bestaan om daarna te verwys nie. Vertaling is ʼn ideale ruimte waar verskillende kulture mekaar kan leer ken, veral wanneer daar vervreemdend vertaal word en kulturele elemente van die bronkultuur in die vertaling behou word. Elke vertaling word egter tot ʼn mindere of meerdere mate aangepas vir sy eie doelkultuur sodat die teikenpubliek die teks beter kan begryp. Wanneer ʼn vertaler direk met die bronteks self werk, het hy beheer oor die manier waarop kulturele referente oorgedra en verduidelik gaan word aan die teikenpubliek. In die geval van ʼn abbavertaling moet die vertaler egter ʼn “bronteks” vertaal wat reeds aangepas is vir ʼn spesifieke teikenpubliek, wat kulturele ooreenkomste toon met sy eie teikenpubliek, of nie. Die abbavertaler het dus te doen met ʼn reeds aangepaste teks waarin sommige kulturele referente behou is en ander nie. Indien die abbavertaler geen eerstehandse kennis het van die bronkultuur nie, beteken dit dat hy nie kan onderskei watter referente aangepas is nie, en ook nie tot watter mate hierdie referente aangepas is nie. In hierdie studie word ondersoek ingestel na die Franse vertalings van twee romans van Etienne van Heerden, naamlik Toorberg en Die swye van Mario Salviati. Le Domaine de Toorberg is ʼn abbavertaling uit die Engelse vertaling van Toorberg en Un long silence is direk uit die Afrikaanse bronteks vertaal. Die doel is om vas te stel in watter een van die twee Franse vertalings kulturele oordrag die suksesvolste plaasgevind het. In vertaalteorie word daar deesdae klem gelê op die feit dat vertalers nie net tweetalig moet wees nie, maar ook bikultureel, dit wil sê die vertaler moet die bron- sowel as doelkultuur verstaan. In die geval van die direkte vertaling wat in hierdie studie bestudeer is, is die vertaler nie net tweetalig nie, maar hy het ook ʼn Suid-Afrikaanse en Franse bikulturalteit, maar in die geval van die abbavertaling het die vertaler ʼn Franse en Noord-Amerikaanse kultuurkombinasie. Dit beteken dat die abbavertaler geen eerstehandse kennis dra van die bronkultuur nie met die gevolg dat die kulturele referente vir haar vreemd is. Ek hoop om deur hierdie studie vas te stel of abbavertalings wel ʼn lewensvatbare metode is om Afrikaanse romans (in hierdie geval) aan ʼn Franse leserspubliek bekend te stel, en indien nie, daar alternatiewe metodes is wat ondersoek behoort te word, byvoorbeeld deur vertalers te gebruik wat nie noodwendig, soos die vertaalteorie meestal voorskryf, in hulle eerste taal vertaal nie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86259
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