Specialized feeding of lambs for optimized performance during the finishing phase

Moolman, Justin (2014-04)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether a lamb finishing ration that is balanced for essential amino acids (EAA), at a specific level of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) would yield better feedlot performance when compared to a standard commercial finishing ration. Metionine (Met) and Lysine (Lys) were identified as the first limiting amino acids for growing lambs. These two amino acids, as well as Threonine (Thr), Arginine (Arg), Leucine (Leu), Isoleucine (Ile) and Phenylalanine (Phe) were included in an optimized protein (OP) feedlot ration at optimal levels. This ration was formulated to contain 157 g/kg crude protein (CP) and 477 g/kg NSC, with Met, Lys, Arg and Thr at 2.48, 7.45, 8.51 and 8.12 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis respectively. The second treatment, FIN, was a standard commercial lamb finishing feed without optimized amino acids and contained similar total protein and NSC to OP of 152 g/kg CP and 468 g/kg NSC but with Met, Lys, Arg and Thr at 2.08, 5.49, 7.47 and 4.80 g/kg on DM basis respectively. A third treatment, a low protein (LP) diet served as a positive control and was formulated on lower specifications (139 g/kg CP, 455 g/kg NSC) and was also not optimized for amino acids. This treatment contained Met, Lys, Arg and Thr at 1.93, 4.99, 6.66 and 4.73 g/kg on DM basis respectively. Lambs grazing kikuyu pasture served as the negative control (CON) group. These lambs also received additional supplementary feed at 500 g/day as a production lick to be comparable to a scenario where lambs are finished on grazing. Forty cross-bred Merino x Döhne-Merino lambs with an average weaning weight of 24.35 ± 0.648 kg were finished in a feedlot for 57 days where after they were slaughtered at an average weight of 41.41 ± 1.259 kg. During the feedlot trial lamb performance was measured by monitoring daily growth rates and feed intake. Also, an in vivo digestibility study was carried out on the OP and FIN lambs. During the slaughter process the rumen was removed which was done to collect a sample of the rumen wall from next to the rumino-reticular fold. These rumen samples were mounted onto slides so that the development of the rumen could be examined. The M. longissimus dorsi from both sides of the carcass between the 2nd and 3rd last thoracic vertebra and the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebra were removed. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between any of the concentrate feed treatments with regards to the average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) or dressing percentage (DP). The CON lambs, as expected, had lower growth rates (P < 0.05) than the concentrate fed lamb and thus showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in terms of ADG. The DP of 45.96 % ± 0.711 for the CON lambs differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the OP (51.44 % ± 0.358), FIN (52.72 % ± 0.653) and LP (51.74 % ± 0.611) treatments. As expected the concentrate feeds were much more effective in maintaining higher growth rates when compared to the CON lambs while the optimizing of EAA in the OP diet did not lead to improved feedlot performance as the FIN and LP treatments were able to achieve similar (P > 0.05) growth rates. Within the feedlot treatments there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) with regard to the papillae length and rumen wall thickness. There was however a numerical increase in the papillae length as the NSC levels in the feed increased. The CON lambs differed from the OP lambs (P < 0.05) in terms of papillae length. This illustrated the importance of having increased levels of NSC in a feedlot diet as it is this fraction that is responsible for the initialisation and maintenance of rumen morphological development. The in vivo digestibility study therefore confirmed that the commercial finishing feed was just as effective as the optimized feed in terms of nitrogen retention as well as in maintaining suitable energy balance. Although the in vivo digestibility for Met and Lys in the OP feed was higher (P < 0.05) than the FIN feed, this did not lead to improved feedlot performance of the OP lambs. The increased digestibility of these amino acids is due to the fact that the OP diet was higher in levels of bypass amino acids than the FIN feed. The in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) of the OP feed was higher (P < 0.05) than that of the FIN feed.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie studie was om te bepaal of ‘n lamafrond rantsoen wat gebalanseerd is vir beperkende essiensiële aminosure (EAA) teen ‘n spesifieke vlak van nie-strukturele koolhidrate (NSK) beter voerkraal prestasie teweeg sou bring wanneer gemeet word teen ‘n standaard kommersiële afrond rantsoen. Metionien (Met) en Lisien (Lis) is geïdentifiseer as die eerste beperkende aminosure vir groeiende lammers. Hierdie twee aminosure, asook Treonien (Tre), Leusien (Leu), Isoleusien (Ile) en Fenielalanien (Fen) is teen optimale vlakke ingesluit in ‘n geoptimeerde voerkraal rantsoen, OP. Hierdie rantsoen is geformuleer om 157 g/kg RP en 477 g/kg NSK te bevat asook Met, Lis, Arg en Tre teen 2.48, 7.45, 8.51 en 8.12 g/kg onderskeidelik. Die tweede behandeling, FIN, was ‘n kommersiële lamafrond voer waarin die aminosure nie geoptimeer is nie en het soortgelyke vlakke van proteïene en NSK bevat teen 152 g/kg RP en 468 g/kg NSK met Met, Lis, Arg en Tre teen 2.08, 5.49, 7.47, 4.80 g/kg onderskeidelik. ‘n Derde voer, LP, het gedien as ‘n positiewe kontrole en was ‘n lae proteïen voer met laer spesifikasies (139 g/kg RP, 455 g/kg NSK) waarin die aminosure ook nie geoptimeer is nie. Die LP voer het Met, Lis, Arg en Tre bevat teen 1.93, 4.99, 6.66 en 4.73 g/kg onderskeidelik. Die negatiewe kontrole behandeling, CON, is verteenwoordig deur lammers wat op kikuyu gewei het terwyl addisionele supplementêre voeding teen 500g/lam/dag voorsien is. Hierdie supplementêre voeding het gedien as ‘n produksie lek om sodoende vergelykbaar te wees met scenario waar lammers op weiding afgerond word. Veertig kruisgeteelde Merino x Döhne-Merino lammers met ‘n gemiddelde gewig van 24.35 ± 0.648 kg is vir 57 dae in ‘n voerkraal afgerond waarna hulle, teen ‘n gemiddelde gewig van 41.41 ± 1.259 kg, geslag is. Tydens die voerkraal proef is prestasie gemonitor deur die meet van daaglikse groei en voerinname. Hiertydens is daar ook ‘n in vivo verteringsproef op die OP en FIN lammers gedoen. Tydens die slagproses is die rumen verwyder waarna ‘n monster van die rumenwand langs die rumino retikulêre vou geneem is. Hierdie rumenmonsters is op skyfies geplaas sodat die ontwikkeling van die rumen ondersoek kan word. Die M. longissimus dorsi was aan beide kante van die karkas tussen die 2de en 3de laaste torakale werwels en die 4de en 5de lumbale werwels verwyder. Daar was geen betekenisvolle verskille (P > 0.05) tussen enige van die konsentraat behandelings ten opsigte van gemiddelde daaglikse toename (GDT), voeromset verhouding (VOV) of uitslag persentasie nie. Die CON lammers het egter, soos verwag, beduidend (P < 0.05) stadiger gegroei en het dus verskille getoon ten opsigte van GDT. Die uitslag persentasie van 45.96 % ± 0.711 vir die CON lammers het ook betekenisvol verskil (P < 0.05) van die OP (51.44 % ± 0.358), FIN (52.72 % ± 0.653) en LP (51.74 % ± 0.611) behandelings. Binne die voerkraal behandelings was daar geen betekenisvolle verskille (P > 0.05) ten opsigte van die papillae lengte en rumenwand dikte nie, alhoewel daar ‘n numeriese toename in papillae lengte was soos die NSK vlakke in die voer gestyg het. Die CON lammers het wel van die OP lammers verskil (P < 0.05) ten opsigte van papillae lengte. Hierdie bevinding het bevestig hoe belangrik NSK is in die inisiasie en instandhouding van die morfologiese ontwikkeling van die rumen. Die in vivo verterings studie het daarop gedui dat die kommersiële afrond voer net so effektief soos die geoptimeerde voer was in terme van stikstof retensie asook die handhawing van ‘n geskikte energie balans. Alhoewel die in vivo verteerbaarheid van Met en Lis in die OP hoër was (P < 0.05) as in die FIN voer, het hierdie verskille nie gelei tot beter groei in die OP lammers nie. Hierdie verskil in verteerbaarheid is toegeskryf aan die feit dat die aminosure in die OP voer meer rumen-beskermd was as dié in die FIN voer. Die in vitro verteringstudie het daarop gedui dat die OP voer beduidend beter (P < 0.05) verteer is as die FIN voer.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/86257
This item appears in the following collections: