House fly predators in poultry manure and environmental factors affecting them
The predominant predatory arthropods breeding in manure at two census sites in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, were found to be Carcinops pumilio (Erichson) (Coleoptera: Histeridae), Macrocheles muscaedomesticae (Scopoli) (Acarina: Macrochelidae), and Philonthus sordidus (Gravenhorst) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). This was similar to other localities in the world. At both sites, adults of C. pumilio appeared within a week of manure cleanout and subsequently increased in numbers. The majority of C. pumilio, P. sordidus and M. muscaedomesticae showed preference for a narrow range of manure moisture (70-75 %). Very few predators occurred at moisture levels above 80 %. The three species showed a wide range of temperature tolerance (12-31°C). Carcinops pumilio preferred aged manure, and M. muscaedomesticae and P. sordidus fresh manure. Thus they could be used to complement one another in IPM augmentation strategies.