A dry port as an expansion option for the Cape Town container terminal

De Wet, Christiaan Johannes (2014-04)

Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2014.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Currently maritime ports, including the Port of Cape Town, experience congestion, pollution and other logistics-related problems due to increasing levels of container traffic. The presence of these problems has caused port planners, port operators and logistics firms to look for new solutions in this transport sector. The dry port concept, whereby offloaded containers are stored outside the maritime port in a dedicated logistics area, is recognized as a means for solving some of these major problems, thereby promoting economic development and logistics integration as well as reducing the demand on limited capacity (land and access) at the maritime port. Therefore, the core objective of this study is to demonstrate that the implementation of the dry port concept is a feasible alternative for expanding the throughput capacity of the Cape Town Container Terminal. The Port of Cape Town is strategically one of the best placed ports in South Africa as it is positioned at the South Western extremity of the continent of Africa, thereby linking America and Europe with Asia, the Far East and Australia. Furthermore, the Port of Cape Town also forms a direct link between international trade and about three (3) million consumers in the Western Cape. The recent expansion of the Cape Town Container Terminal was a major investment which included the upgrading of equipment and the expansion of workable surface area, thereby increasing the container terminal yard capacity to 1.4million TEU (TEU = Twenty foot Equivalent Unit) per annum. However, this report showed that the abovementioned increase in volumes as well as the resulting congestion continues to be a challenge at the Port of Cape Town. Firstly, the predicted future container volumes show that the demand in the Port of Cape Town could reach between 1.9 million and 3.2 million TEU per annum by 2039. Secondly, the evaluation of the operational and infrastructural characteristics of the existing Cape Town Container Terminal demonstrated that container terminal yard (CY) area is the capacity limiting characteristic of the terminal and that the operational and infrastructural limits could be reached between 2018 and 2026. The two main functions of a dry port in the Western Cape transportation network would be international trade processing and congestion relief, which are achieved through the duplication and supplementation of the Cape Town Container Terminal facilities at an inland location. The dry port would allow the Western Cape supply chain to absorb any future container volume demands that exceed the CY capacity of the Port of Cape Town and could potentially attract an annual throughput of 0.7 million TEU by 2039. Furthermore, the facility could address the problem of congestion in and around the greater Cape Town metropolitan, resulting in an improved transportation network that will have a positive effect on passenger traffic, productivity of trucks, competitiveness of the Port of Cape Town as well as the environmental sustainability of the transportation system. The dry port concept would therefore be appealing to Transnet Port Authority / Transnet Port Terminals, Shippers and Logistics Managers and the Western Cape Regional Community. The site selection analysis performed in this study evaluated three possible dry port locations, namely: Kraaifontein Area, Ysterplaat Air Force Base and Bellville Precinct. Although the analysis identified that all three of the sites have the potential to be developed into a successful dry port; however, that the Bellville Precinct is the preferred location due to the presence of the Belcon freight rail facility. The success of such a facility will greatly depend on the project’s ability to ensure that the resources needed for the initial investment is kept to a minimum, and ultimately the most viable dry port solution in the Western Cape region would be the phased development of Bellville Precinct. From this it is clear that a dry port could be a feasible alternative for expanding the throughput capacity of the Port of Cape Town, as well as improving the transport infrastructure in the Cape Town area.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Maritieme hawens, insluitende die Kaapstadse hawe, ondervinding tans opeenhoping, besoedeling en ander logistieke probleme as gevolg van toenemende vlakke van die houer verkeer. Die teenwoordigheid van hierdie probleme het veroorsaak dat hawe beplanners, hawe-operateurs en logistiek maatskappye op soek is vir nuwe oplossings in die vervoer sektor. Die droë hawe konsep word erken as 'n middel vir die oplossing van sommige van hierdie probleme, en sodoende ekonomiese ontwikkeling en logistieke integrasie te bevorder, sowel as die verlaging van aanvraag op beperkte kapasiteit (grond en toegang) by die maritieme hawe. Daarom is die kern doel van hierdie studie om aan te toon dat die implementering van die droë hawe konsep 'n haalbare alternatief is vir die uitbreiding van die deurset kapasiteit van die Kaapstadse Houerterminaal. Die Kaapstadse hawe is strategies een van die bes geplaaste hawens in Suid-Afrika, want dit is geleë aan die suid-westerlikste punt van Afrika en verbind Amerika en Europa met Asië, die Verre Ooste en Australië. Verder vorm die Kaapstadse hawe ook 'n direkte skakel tussen die buitelandse markte en die drie (3) miljoen verbruikers in die Wes-Kaap. Die onlangse uitbreiding van die Kaapstadse Houerterminaal het die stoorkapasiteit van die terminaal aansienlik verbeter an 1.4 miljoen TEU per jaar, deur middel van die opgradering van toerusting en die uitbreiding van werkbare oppervlak. Hierdie verslag bewys egter dat die bogenoemde toename in volumes sowel as die gevolglike opeenhoping steeds teenwoordig is in die Kaapstadse hawe. Eerstens, die voorspelde toekomstige houervolumes toon dat die aanvraag in die Kaapstadse hawe tussen 1.9 miljoen en 3.2 miljoen TEU's per jaar kan bereik teen 2039. Tweedens, die evaluering van die operasionele en infrastrukturele kenmerke van die bestaande Kaapstadse Houerterminaal het getoon dat die houer stoorarea die kapasiteit beperkende kenmerk van die terminaal is en dat die operasionele en infrastrukturele perke moontlik tussen 2018 en 2026 bereik kan word. Die twee hoof funksies van 'n droë hawe in die Wes-Kaap vervoer netwerk sal internasionale handel verwerking en opeenhoping verligting wees. Hierdie funksies sal bereik word deur die duplisering en aanvulling van die Kaapstadse Houerterminaal fasiliteite by 'n binnelandse perseel. Die droë hawe sal toelaat dat die Wes-Kaap verskaffersiklus enige toekomstige houervolumes, wat meer is as die houer stoorarea kapasiteit van die Kaapstadse hawe, te kan hanteer en kan potensieel 'n jaarlikse deurset van 0.7 miljoen TEU hanteer. Verder kan die

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