Die rol van aktiewe onderrigprogramme in die bevordering van akademiese vaardighede by Graad 2 leerders in die Stellenbosch omgewing

Barnard, Mone (2013-12)

Thesis (MScSportSc)-- Stellenbosch University, 2013.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The premise of this study focused on the holistic approach to the human body, mainly the connection between the brain and the body. According to Sibley and Etnier (2003:243) both the brain and the body are involved in all forms of learning and should not be considered as separate entities. Therefore, interdependent entities, in other words, what happens to one will affect the other. It is important to realize that learners attend school as holistic beings and that both the body and the brain require sufficient stimulation throughout the day. The purpose of this study focused on the effect of intervention programmes ([1] an integrated academic skills and physical development programme and [2] a moderately intensive physical activity programme) on Grade 2 learners' academic abilities, particularly with regard to literacy and numeracy skills. The study took place at two Afrikaans primary schools (a Quintile 5 school [School A] and a Quintile 1 school [School B]) in the Stellenbosch area. Six Grade 2 classes these schools were used for the purpose of this study. These six groups served as the sample. In this study a quasi-experimental design was used where participants were selected through a convenience sample. The participants that were divided into already existing class groups were made available by the schools. It was thus not possible to select learners randomly. Two Grade 2 groups (the experimental groups) from each school [A1 (n = 25), A2 (n = 26), B1 (n = 23) and B2 (n = 23)], took part in the two intervention programmes, whereas one Grade 2 group from each school (the control group) [A3 (n = 25), and B3 (n = 27)], did not participate in the intervention programmes. The Grade 2 groups consisted of both boys and girls. In the experimental group 48 boys and 49 girls took part in two intervention programmes (N = 97). The control group consisted of 22 boys and 30 girls participants (N = 52). Data was collected by means of a questionnaire and a pre- and post-test. The experimental and control groups completed the questionnaire and pre-test before the start of the intervention and the post-test after the intervention. The measuring instruments that were used during the pre- and post-tests were the VASSI Mathematical skills test and the ESSI Reading and Spelling Test. The two research schools used for the purpose of this study are located in diverse communities. School A is embedded in a more affluent community and School B in a less affluent community. School A is largely regarded as a functional and School B as a dysfunctional school. This means that in School A good school management, discipline and order, good knowledge of the curriculum content, low teacher / pupil absenteeism, good opportunities and resources, low repetition rates and little or no early school leaving by learners takes place. School B complies with the opposite characteristics and find it difficult to uphold the above-mentioned standards. Before the start of the study it became clear that the participants of the respective schools’ differed in literacy and numeracy abilities, as well as in participation in physical activities. Test results using the VASSI Mathematical skill test and the ESSI Reading and Spelling Test indicated that School A and B’s participants’ abilities differed in relation to literacy and numeracy skills. School A did better than School B in both literacy and numeracy during the pre-test. Through the information gathered using the questionnaire, it can be concluded that the two schools offer different opportunities to their learners with respect to movement experiences. School A's learners take part in sport and physical education (PE) throughout the year whereas School B did not offer these opportunities to learners. After the intervention programmes and through the use of the post-tests the results indicated that School A and B both showed progress in literacy and numeracy, although it was not statistically significant (p <0.01). Compared to the pre-test results and information gathered through the questionnaire the post-test results indicated that School B, with the least amount of movement opportunities, showed the greatest progress. Specifically the experimental group that took part in the moderately intensive physical activity programme indicated good progress in spelling. The afore-mentioned was not statistically significant and is only regarded as a tendency that warrants further research. Based on the results obtained by the current study general recommendations were made for education practice. It is essential that the importance of physical activity must be recognised. Physical activities can have an effect on the holistic development of the child. Hacker (2008:1) supports the afore-mentioned and believes that physical activities facilitate the development of the building blocks upon which learning processes rests. Thus, policy makers, education departments, teachers, parents and students need to understand the role of physical activity in the learning process. It is also of importance that teachers receive the necessary training in PE. It could be beneficial if refreshment courses or workshops with information regarding gross motor development are offered annually (or more) to PE teachers. Another recommendation eludes to the amount of time spent in schools on PE. The intense focus as on other scholastic subjects should be applied with the same intensity to PE. Additionally, in the South African education system PE should enjoy greater prominence. Thus, it is important that PE should have a daily slot in the school timetable. Recommendations for further research that could have played a role in the results of the present study refers to the sample size. The sample of the present study does not necessarily represent the rest of the Grade 2 groups in South Africa. Therefore, it is proposed that similar studies in future make use of larger samples sizes. It is important to choose the appropriate period in which the study should take place. It could be beneficial to perform a similar study later in the year, especially with regard to the transition from Grade 1 to Grade 2. This will enable the participants to have the necessary reading skills to complete the pre-and post-tests. Specific arrangements regarding space should be cleared up with schools and teachers. A schedule should be drawn up for the duration of the study. It is also recommended that the study be carried out over a longer period. The assumption is that if the intervention takes place over a longer period of time the effect of physical activity on several domains (cognitive, emotional, social and physical) may have been greater. With all the information put forward by the study, it is strongly recommended that the role of PE in schools be reconsidered.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die uitgangspunt van hierdie studie het op die holistiese benadering tot die menslike liggaam gefokus, hoofsaaklik die verbintenis tussen die brein en die liggaam. Volgens Sibley en Etnier (2003:243) betrek enige vorm van leer beide die brein en die liggaam en word beide nie as aparte entiteite beskou nie. Dus, interafhanklike entiteite, met ander woorde wat met die een gebeur sal die ander affekteer. Dit is van belang om te besef dat ‘n leerder skool as ‘n totaliteitswese bywoon en dat beide die liggaam en die brein genoegsame stimulering gedurende die dag moet ontvang. Die doel van hierdie studie het op die invloed wat intervensieprogramme ([1] ‘n geïntegreerde akademiese vaardigheid en fisieke ontwikkelingsprogram en [2] ‘n matig-intensiewe fisieke aktiwiteitsprogram) op Graad 2-leerders se akademiese vermoëns, spesifiek in terme van geletterdheid en syfervaardighede, gefokus. Die studie het by twee Afrikaanse laerskole (‘n Kwintiel 5 [Skool A] en ‘n Kwintiel 2 skool [Skool B]) in die Stellenbosch omgewing plaasgevind. Ses Graad 2-klasse in hierdie skole is vir die doel van hierdie studie gebruik. Hierdie ses groepe het as die steekproef gedien. In hierdie studie is daar van ‘n kwasi-eksperimentele ontwerp gebruik gemaak waar deelnemers deur middel van ‘n gerieflikheidsteekproef geselekteer is. Die deelnemers wat in reeds bestaande klasgroepe verdeel was, is deur die skole beskikbaar gestel. Dit was dus nie moontlik om leerders ewekansig te selekteer nie. Twee Graad 2-groepe (die eksperimentelegroepe) uit elke skool [A1 (n=25), A2 (n=26), B1(n=23) en B2 (n=23)] het aan die twee intervensieprogramme deelgeneem, terwyl een Graad 2-groep uit elke skool (die kontrolegroepe) [A3 (n=25) en B3 (n=27)] nie aan die intervensieprogramme deelgeneem het nie. Die Graad 2-groepe het uit seuns sowel as meisies bestaan. In die eksperimentelegroepe het 48 seuns en 49 meisies aan die twee intervensieprogramme deelgeneem (N=97). Die kontrolegroepe het uit 22 seuns en 30 meisies bestaan (N=52). Data is deur middel van ‘n vraelys en ‘n voor- en na-toets ingesamel. Die eksperimentele- en kontrolegroepe het voor die aanvang van die intervensieprogramme ‘n vraelys en voor-toets voltooi en na afloop van die intervensieprogramme ’n na-toets. Die meetinstrumente wat gedurende die voor- en na-toets gebruik is, was die VASSI-Wiskundige vaardigheidstoets en die ESSI-Lees- en Speltoets. Die twee navorsingskole wat vir die studie gebruik is, is in uiteenlopende gemeenskappe geleë. Skool A is in ‘n meer welvarende gemeenskap geleë en Skool B in ‘n minder welvarende gemeenskap. Skool A kan hoofsaaklik as ‘n funksionele skool bestempel word en Skool B as ‘n disfunksionele skool. Dit beteken dat Skool A vir goeie skoolbestuur, dissipline en orde, goeie kennis van die kurrikuluminhoud, lae onderwyser/leerder-afwesigheid, goeie geleenthede en hulpbronne, lae herhalingsyfers en min of geen vroeë skoolverlating deur leerders bekend is. Skool B voldoen aan die teenoorgestelde eienskappe en sukkel om aan laasgenoemde standaarde te voldoen. Voor die aanvang van die studie het dit duidelik geblyk dat die deelnemers in die onderskeie skole se vermoëns in geletterdheid en syfervaardigheid, asook deelname aan fisieke aktiwiteite, verskil het. Voor-toets resultate wat met behulp van die VASSI-Wiskundige vaardigheidstoets en ESSI-Leesen Speltoets bekom is, het daarop gedui dat Skool A en B se deelnemers se vermoë met betrekking tot geletterdheid en syfervaardighede verskil. Skool A het beter as Skool B in beide geletterdheid en syfervaardigheid gedurende die voor-toets gevaar. Vanuit die inligting wat met behulp van die vraelyste ingesamel is, kan daar afgelei word dat die twee skole verskillende geleenthede ten opsigte van bewegingservarings aan hulle leerders bied. Skool A se leerders neem regdeur die jaar aan sport en Liggaamlike Opvoeding (LO) deel, terwyl Skool B nie hierdie geleenthede aan die leerders bied nie. Na afloop van die intervensieprogramme en met behulp van die na-toets het resultate getoon dat vordering in geletterdheid en syfervaardigheid by Skool A en B voorgekom het, alhoewel nie statisties beduidend (p<0.01) nie. In vergelyking met die voor-toets resultate en die inligting wat uit die vraelys bekom is, het die na-toets resultate getoon dat Skool B wat oor die minste bewegingsgeleenthede beskik, die grootste vordering getoon het. Spesifiek die eksperimentelegroep wat aan die matig-intensiewe fisieke aktiwiteitsprogram deelgeneem het, het goeie vordering in spelvermoëns getoon. Laasgenoemde is nie statisties beduidend nie en word slegs as ‘n tendens beskou wat verdere navorsing regverdig. Op grond van die resultate is algemene aanbevelings vir die onderwyspraktyk vanuit die studie gemaak. Dit is van belang dat die belangrikheid van fisieke aktiwiteite herken word. Fisieke aktiwiteite kan ‘n effek op die holistiese ontwikkeling van die kind hê. Hacker (2008:1) ondersteun laasgenoemde en is van mening dat fisieke aktiwiteit die ontwikkeling van die boustene waarop die leerproses gebou word fasiliteer. Dus, moet beleidmakers, onderwysdepartemente, onderwysers, ouers en leerders die rol van fisieke aktiwiteite in die leerproses verstaan. Dit is ook van belang dat onderwysers die nodige opleiding in LO ontvang. Dit kan voordelig wees as opknappings kursusse of werkswinkels met inligting aangaande grootmotoriese ontwikkeling jaarliks (of meer) aan LO onderwysers aangebied kan word. Nog ‘n aanbeveling dui op die tyd wat aan LO by skole gespandeer moet word. Die intense fokus op ander skolastiese vakke moet met dieselfde erns op LO toegepas word en in die Suid-Afrikaanse onderwyssisteem moet LO groter prominensie geniet. Dus, is dit van belang dat LO daagliks ‘n tydgleuf op die skoolrooster moet hê. Aanbevelings vir verdere navorsing wat ‘n rol in die resultate van die huidige studie kon gehad het, verwys na die grootte van die steekproef. Die steekproef van die huidige studie verteenwoordig nie noodwendig die res van die Graad-2 groepe in Suid-Afrika nie. Dus, word daar voorgestel dat toekomstige soortgelyke studies groter steekproewe gebruik. Dit is van belang om die regte tydperk waarin die studie gaan plaasvind te kies. Dit kan voordelig wees om soortgelyke studie later in die jaar uit te voer, veral met betrekking tot die oorgang van Graad 1 na Graad 2. Dit sal die deelnemers in staat stel om oor die nodige leesvaardighede te beskik wat hulle benodig om die voor- en na-toets te voltooi. Vasgestelde logistieke ten opsigte van ruimte moet met die skole en onderwysers uitgeklaar word. ‘n Skedule moet opgestel word vir die tydperk waarin die studie gaan plaasvind. Daar word ook sterk aanbeveel dat die studie oor ‘n langer tydperk uitgevoer word. Die veronderstelling is dat indien die intervensieprogramme oor ‘n langer tydperk plaasvind die moontlike effek van fisieke aktiwiteite op verskeie domeine (kognitief, emosioneel, sosiaal en fisiek) groter kan wees. Met al die inligting wat deur die studie na vore gebring is, word daar sterk aanbeveel dat die rol van LO in skole heroorweeg word.

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