FTIR measurement of monomer fractions in dilute alcohol-acetone systems for the evaluation of the sPC-SAFT EoS

Kruger, Francois Johan (2013-12)

Thesis (MScEng)-- Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The simplified Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (sPC-SAFT) is characterised by the dual advantages of decreased computational intensity, while remaining accurate for a variety of systems. Vapour-liquid equilibrium data are used to generate equation of state parameters. However, incorporating monomer fraction data into the parameter regression has long been advocated as a good, or even preferred, practice. Therefore, the monomer fraction data of dilute alcohol-acetone systems were analysed in this study. A small stainless steel sample vessel was constructed with temperature control, manual pressure control and a mechanism for liquid phase analysis via infrared spectroscopy. The performance of the spectrometer was verified by comparison with the ethanol – n-hexane data of von Solms et al. (2007), after which new monomer fraction data were obtained for dilute solutions (between 0.01 and 1.5 mol%) of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and 2-propanol in acetone near 23 °C. For dilute alcohol-acetone systems it was found that the propanols had the highest monomer fractions, and methanol the lowest. With increasing alcohol concentration, the monomer fractions decreased exponentially to values of 0.4 and 0.1 for methanol and the other alcohols respectively. The excess availability of hydrogen bond acceptors in the mixtures explains the equivalency observed for ethanol, 1-propanol and 2-propanol. For dilute acetone-alcohol systems it was found that, especially for methanol and ethanol, there was a pronounced trend towards acetone monomer fractions of 1 at infinite dilution. For the acetone – 2-propanol system, a previously unrecorded monomer peak was observed and quantified. Acetone monomer fractions tended to decrease as alcohol chain-length increased, showing that acetone could more easily penetrate the hydrogen bond network of the solvent when the solvent-solvent bonds were weaker. Monomer fraction data were compared to predictions for the sPC-SAFT scheme and parameters combinations published in the literature. The experimental data were accurately modelled using modified association parameters such that the solute associates strongly (εAB≈103 κ≈1), while the solvent parameters were decreased (εAB≈102 κ≈10˗3) to give a weakened solvent association effect. The difficulty for the dilute solute in penetrating the solvent bonding network appeared to be similar to the hydrophobic effect. Two new association schemes were proposed for acetone, assigning a single (N) or two (2N) negative association sites to represent the oxygen valence electron pairs. These schemes showed relative success in modelling acetone as the solvent in the mixture, while not being able to predict acetone monomer fractions when acetone was the solute. For dilute acetone-alcohol systems, the data were best described using the 2B model for acetone, while the best choice of scheme for the alcohol varied from system to system. For dilute alcohol-acetone mixtures it was generally found that a 2B-N model (with modified association parameters) provided the best fit to those experimental data. Accurate modelling below 0.1 mol% was difficult to attain with average errors decreasing to the order of 10% when this area was excluded. In this highly dilute region, not one of the models could describe the rapid change in (monomer fraction) gradient sufficiently while simultaneously offering accurate predictions over the entire experimental range.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die sPC-SAFT of simplified Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory toestandsvergelykings word wyd gebruik as gevolg van sy goeie akkuraatheid vir ‘n wye reeks sisteme, ten spyte van verminderde berekeningsintensiteit. Die parameters vir dié toestandsvergelyk word afgelei van faseewewig data, maar monomeer fraksie data word voorgestel vir die verbetering van (veral) die assosiasie parameters. Ten opsigte hiervan, was alkohol-asetoon sisteme bestudeer en hul monomeer fraksies gemeet. ‘n Staal reaktor was ontwerp (met ‘n temperatuurbeheerstelsel sowel as drukbeheer) om vloeistof monsters voor te berei vir analise d.m.v. infrarooi-spektroskopie. Die akkuraatheid van die eksperimentele apparaat is bewys deur nabootsing van etanol – n-heksaan data van von Solms et al. (2007), waarna nuwe monomeer fraksie data gegenereer is vir verdunde mengsels (0.01 tot 1.5 mol%) van metanol, etanol, 1- en 2-propanol met asetoon by 23 °C. Metanol monomeer fraksies het eksponensieël afgeneem na 0.4, terwyl etanol en propanol fraksies afgeneem het na ‘n gemene waarde van ongeveer 0.1. Hierdie tendens word toegeskryf aan ‘n oormaat van toeganklike waterstofbindingontvangers in hierdie mengsels. Vir verdunde asetoon-alkohol sisteme is daar ‘n tendens, (veral vir verdunnings met metanol en etanol) vir die monomer fraksies om te neig na 1 by oneindige verdunning. ‘n Monomeer piek is ook waargeneem vir die asetoon – 2-propanol sisteem. Hierdie piek is nie voorheen gesien in ander studies nie en dit is ook die eerste keer wat sulke data gekwantifiseer is. Daar is bevind dat asetoon monomeer fraksies afneem soos alkohol kettinglengte toeneem. Die gegenereerde monomeer fraksie data word vergelyk met verskeie sPC-SAFT parameterstelle vanuit die literatuur. Oor die algemeen, is die beraamde fraksie veel hoër as die eksperimentele data wanneer die 2B/3B/2C skemas met ‘n nie-assosiërende asetoon molekuul gemodelleer word. Wanneer die 2B parameters van von Solms et al. (2004) gebruik word, toon die beraming ‘n drastiese onderskatting van die data. Om ‘n akkurate beraming van die monomeer fraksie data te kry, moet die assosiasie parameters van die opgeloste stof vermeerder word (met εAB≈103 κ≈1) terwyl die oplosmiddel s’n drasties verswak moet word (met εAB≈102 κ≈10-3). Hierdie patroon kan vergelyk word met die hidrofobiese effek waar die kragte binne die oplosmiddel ‘n netwerk vorm wat die opgeloste stof uitstoot. Twee nuwe assosiasie skemas word ook voorgestel vir asetoon waar onderskeidelik een (N) en twee (2N) negatiewe sones, wat die valenselektroonpare op die suurstofatoom voorstel, aan asetoon geheg word. Hierdie twee skemas het relatiewe sukses getoon in die modellering van verdunde alkohol-asetoon sisteme terwyl dit ‘n swak beskrywing van die verdunde asetoon-alkohol mengsels voorspel het. ‘n Gewysigde 2B asetoon skema gee ‘n goeie beskrywing van die eksperimentele data. In hierdie geval, is die keuse van alkohol skema minder belangrik, terwyl die waardes van die assosiasie parameters verminder moet word. Vir verdunde alkohol-asetoon mengels word daar bevind dat ‘n 2B-N model met nuwe assosiasie parameters die beste passing van die eksperimentele data gee. Daar was ook bevind dat die modelle se akkuraatheid drasties afneem (met fout vermeerdering in die orde van 10%) wanneer die konsentrasie van die opgeloste stof minder as 0.1 mol% is.

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