Toward the development of a corporate social responsibility leadership questionnaire

Van Zyl, Liam Tian (2013-12)

Thesis (MComm)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In recent years, organisations in South Africa and around the world have started to realise that they have responsibilities towards the environment and communities they operate in, and that their responsibilities stretch further than just making profits for their shareholders. This growing awareness amongst organisations resulted in the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to escalate in importance and significance (Carroll & Shabana, 2010). The organisations‟ social responsibilities entail more than merely philanthropic activities in that the “social responsibility of business encompasses the economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary (voluntary) expectations that society has of organisations at a given point in time” (Carroll & Shabana, 2010, p. 89). Apart from being a powerful and positive force for social change, organisations can also reap multi-faceted business returns from their CSR endeavours. Large organisations that have specific positions or departments that coordinates the various components of their CSR initiatives needs competent CSR leaders who can act as champions and drive CSR initiatives in their respective organisations. The purpose of this study was to identify the behaviours/competencies necessary to be an effective CSR leader and to develop a CSR leadership measurement instrument that could be used to assess CSR leadership competencies amongst CSR leaders of South African organisations. An ex post facto research design that included both qualitative and quantitative phases was used. A three-phase scale development process based on the work of Netemeyer, Bearden and Sharma (2003) was followed to develop the CSR leadership measurement instrument. Phase 1 (construct definition and domain specification) entailed a literature review, expert judging, as well as the identification of CSR leadership behaviours/competencies. The Leadership Behaviour Inventory (LBI-2) (Spangenberg & Theron, 2010; 2011) was identified to form the basis of the CSR-LQ. In-depth interviews with five CSR leaders were held and they judged the applicability of the 20 dimensions of the LBI-2 for CSR leadership. Additional CSR leader behaviours and competencies were identified through the use of the Critical Incident Technique (CIT). Phase 2 (generation and judging of measurement items) included a process of item generation and expert judgement of measurement items. The revised LBI-2 items, together with new items were compiled in a questionnaire. A 5 point Likert-type scale (1=not at all important to 5=absolutely critical) was used to judge the importance of the CSR-LQ items. A further sample of CSR leaders (n=13) served as expert judges to indicate the applicability and relevancy of the CSR-LQ items. Purposive sampling together with snowball sampling was used to generate the sample. Phase 3 (finalisation of the measurement instrument) entailed finalising the CSR-LQ prior to empirical testing. The study resulted in the identification of CSR leadership competencies and the development of a CSR leadership measurement instrument. It is however too early to draw conclusions from this study, and it is hoped that future researchers will build on this study and develop a comprehensive CSR leadership competency model that could be used to identify and develop successful CSR leaders that will contribute to the CSR objectives of their respective organisations and add to the future development of the country.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Organisasies regoor die wêreld, asook in Suid-Afrika, het in die afgelope jare begin besef dat hulle verantwoordelikhede het teenoor die omgewing en gemeenskappe waarin hulle werksaam is en dat hul verantwoordelikhede verder strek as om bloot wins vir hul belanghebbendes te maak. Hierdie toenemende bewustheid onder organisasies het tot gevolg gehad dat die konsep van korporatiewe sosiale verantwoordelikheid (KSV) in belangrikheid en betekenis toegeneem het (Carroll & Shabana, 2010). Organisasies se sosiale verantwoordelikheid behels meer as bloot filantropiese aktiwiteite deurdat dit ekonomiese, wetlike, etiese, en diskresionêre (willekeurige) verwagtinge wat die gemeenskap van organisasies het op 'n gegewe tydstip insluit (Carroll & Shabana, 2010). Buiten vir die feit dat KSV 'n kragtige en positiewe mag vir sosiale verandering is, kan organisasies ook veelvuldige besigheidsvoordele uit hul KSV-pogings trek. Groot organisasies, wat spesifieke posisies of departemente het om die verskeie komponente van hul KSV-inisiatiewe te koördineer, benodig bevoegde KSV-leiers wat as kampvegters kan optree en die KSV-inisiatiewe in hul onderskeie organisasies kan dryf. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die nodige gedrag/bevoegdhede van 'n effektiewe KSV-leier te identifiseer en om 'n KSV-leierskap-meetinstrument te ontwikkel wat gebruik kan word om KSV-leierskapbevoegdhede onder KSV-leiers van Suid-Afrikaanse organisasies te meet. 'n Ex post facto navorsingsontwerp wat beide kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe fases ingesluit het, is gebruik. 'n Skaalontwikkelingsproses, gebaseer op die werk van Netemeyer, Bearden and Sharma (2003) en bestaande uit drie fases, is gevolg om die KSV-leierskap-meetinstrument te ontwikkel. Fase 1 (konstrukomskrywing en domeinspesifikasie) het 'n literatuurstudie, kennersoordeel, asook die identifikasie van KSV-leierskapsgedrag/-bevoegdhede bevat. Die Leierskapsgedrag-inventaris (LBI-2) (Spangenberg & Theron, 2010; 2011) is geïdentifiseer om die basis te vorm van die korporatiewe sosiale verantwoordelikheidsleierskap-vraelys (CSR-LQ). In-diepte onderhoude is met vyf KSV-leiers gevoer en hulle het die toepaslikheid van die 20 dimensies van die LBI-2 ten opsigte van KSV-leierskap beoordeel. Bykomende KSV-leierskapsgedrag en -bevoegdhede is geïdentifiseer deur gebruik te maak van die Kritiese Insident-tegniek (KIT). Fase 2 (skep en oordeel van metingsitems) het 'n proses van itemskepping en kennersoordeel van metingsitems ingesluit. Die hersiene LBI-2-items, tesame met nuwe items, is in 'n vraelys saamgevat. 'n Vyf-punt Likert-tipe skaal (1=glad nie belangrik nie tot 5=absoluut noodsaaklik) is gebruik om die belangrikheid van die CSR-LQ-items te bepaal. 'n Verdere steekproef van KSV-leiers (n=13) het as kenners/beoordelaars gedien om die toepaslikheid en relevansie van die CSR-LQ-items aan te dui. Doelgerigte steekproefneming deur middel van sneeubal-steekproefneming is gedoen om die monster te genereer. Fase 3 (finalisering van die meetinstrument) het die finalisering van die CSR-LQ – voor empiriese toetsing – behels. Die studie het gelei tot die identifisering van KSV-leierskapbevoegdhede en die ontwikkeling van 'n KSV-leierskap-meetinstrument. Dit is egter te vroeg om gevolgtrekkings uit hierdie studie te maak, en daar word gehoop dat toekomstige navorsers op hierdie studie sal voortbou. Sodoende kan 'n omvattende KSV-leierskapbevoegdheidsmodel ontwikkel word wat gebruik kan word om suksesvolle KSV-leiers te identifiseer en te ontwikkel. Hierdie suksesvolle KSV-leiers sal tot die KSV-doelwitte van hul onderskeie organisasies kan bydra en waarde kan toevoeg tot die toekomstige ontwikkeling van die land.

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