Informal settlement upgrading and the effect of governmentality on women's social networks : a case study of New Rest and Makhaza, Cape Town

Massey, Ruth Thokozile (2013-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: It is estimated that 70% of sub-Saharan Africa’s urban population resides in informal settlements. Cape Town (South Africa), in particular, has a projected 223 informal settlements within its boundaries (which house almost 136 000 households). The national government has attempted to meet housing needs through the upgrading of informal settlements. In situ upgrading has been seen as a particularly popular route to follow. This study aimed to investigate the City of Cape Town’s governmentality in the in situ upgrading of Makhaza and New Rest in Cape Town and explore the implications of this governmentality for women’s social networks in these two settlements. The study focused on the governmentality elements of rationalities, practices and techniques and counter-conduct. A review of the literature shows little attention has been paid to the various governmentalities (practice, techniques and rationalities) that exist within informal settlement upgrading. The literature has also not paid much attention to how the governmentality of those undertaking informal settlement upgrading, relates to women’s social networks (and their governmentality) within upgraded sites. The research made use of qualitatively-driven methodologies and approaches, employing the techniques of Neighbourhood Social Mapping, Social Network Assessment (SNA), semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, transect walks, observational studies and secondary data gathering. The study found, amongst other things, that the governmentality (rationalities, techniques and practices) used by the City to plan and implement the upgrading of informal settlements differs from that of the women’s social networks. The profound differences in governmentalities have meant that the settlements do not meet the needs of the women and their social networks. In response the women have redesigned their new settlement to meet the needs of their social networks. Integral Theory is used in this thesis to map and better understand the differing governmentalities and their relationship and was used to propose an Integral approach in managing differing governmentalities. The thesis suggests that, in order to understand fully and respond appropriately to the challenges faced in upgrading, those in power need to be aware of and include all perspectives and actors within their upgrading process and practice.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Daar word beraam dat 70% van sub-Sahara Afrika se stedelike populasie in informele nedersettings woon. Kaapstad (Suid-Afrika), spesifiek, het ‘n beraamde 223 informele nedersettings binne die grense (wat omtrent 136 000 huishoudings huisves). Die nasionale regering het onderneem om behuisings behoefte te voorsien deur die opgradering van informele nedersettings. In situ opgradering is gesien as ‘n besonder gewilde roete om te volg. Hierdie studie het gepoog om die City of Cape Town (die Stad) se governmentality te ondersoek in die opgradering van Makhaza en New Rest in Kaapstad. So ook om die implikasies van hierdie governmentality vir vroue se sosiale netwerke in hierdie nedersettings te verken. Die studie het gefokus op die governmentality (regeringsmentaliteit) beginsels van rationaliteite, praktyke en tegnieke en teen-optrede. ‘n Oorsig van die literatuur toon min aandag is geskenk aan die verskillende governmentalities wat binne opgraderingsprojekte vir informele nedersettings bestaan. Die literatuur het ook nie veel aandag gegee aan hoe die governmentality van die onderneming van die informele nedersettings met betrekking tot vroue se sosiale netwerke (en hul governmentality) binne opgradeerde terreine. Die navorsing het gebruik gemaak van kwaliteits gedrewe metodologie en benaderings, die gebruik van tegnieke van omgewing sosiale kartering, sosiale netwerk beraming, semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude, vraelyste, deursnee wandeling, waarnemings studies en sekondêre data insameling. Die studie het onder andere bevind dat die governmentality (rationaliteite, tegnieke en praktyke), soos gebruik deur die Stad om opgradering van informele nedersettings te beplan en implimenteer, verskil van die van die vroue se sosiale netwerke. Die diepgaande verskille in governmentalities het gelei daartoe dat die nedersettings nie voldoen aan die behoeftes van die vroue en hul sosiale netwerke nie. In reaksie daarop het die vroue die nuwe nedersetting herontwerp om in hul sosiale netwerk behoeftes te voorsien. Integrale Teorie is in hierdie tesis gebruik om die verskille in governmentalities en hul verwantskappe uiteen te sit en beter te kan verstaan en ook om die Integrale benadering in die hantering van verskillende governmetnalities voor te stel. Die tesis dui daarop dat in orde om ten volle te verstaan en toepaslik te reageer op die uitdagings wat gepaard gaan met opgradering moet die wat in beheer is van alle perspektiewe en akteurs binne die opgraderings proses bewus wees en dit in ag neem.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/85799
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