The association between glycaemic control and lifestyle habits in adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus attending selected private health care practices in Thabazimbi, Limpopo Province.

Carstens, Maryke (2013-12)

Thesis (MNutr)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Introduction: Intensive lifestyle intervention in people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is associated with weight loss, significant reductions in HbA1c% and a reduction in cardiovascular disease risk factors. Small towns unfortunately experience a deficit of dieticians, thus limiting access to lifestyle intervention. Furthermore, a limited number of South African studies have evaluated the effect of dietary habits, anthropometric status, activity level (AL) and dietician-led medical nutrition therapy (MNT) on glycaemic control in patients with T2DM. This study thus aimed to identify the association between glycaemic control and lifestyle habits in adults with T2DM living in Thabazimbi. The role of the dietician with regard to optimal glycaemic control was also investigated with great interest. Methods: Individuals (>18 years) with T2DM who had a recent HbA1c test result and no acute infection/illness were included in the study over a 7 month recruitment period. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured, AL and dietetic contact evaluated, and dietary habits assessed by means of a structured questionnaire. Six home-measured post-prandial glucose (PPG) measurements and HbA1c% were used to evaluate glycaemic control. Results: A total of 62 (59.7% males) patients were included. The mean age was 60.13 ±10.85 years and mean T2DM disease duration was 121 ±96.56 months. Only 6.45% of participants had a normal Body Mass Index classification. Most (90.32%) participants had a substantially increased waist circumference (WC). Half of the participants had a sedentary/low AL, whilst 48.39% had an active/moderately active AL. Almost all (95%) participants indicated it was necessary for persons with DM to consult a dietician for MNT, however only 63% of participants actually consulted one. Mean dietary compliance was 74.53 ±10.93%. The average HbA1c% and PPG of participants were respectively 7.50 ±1.62% and 8.90 ±3.21mmol/l. A significant negative association (r=-0.31; p=0.02) was found between HbA1c% and percentage dietary compliance. The number of dietetic sessions completed and average PPG were also significantly [(r=0.40; p=0.001), (r=-0.34; p=0.01)] associated with percentage dietary compliance. In turn PPG had a significant positive (r=0.30; p=0.02) association with DM disease duration. Both the good HbA1c and good PPG control groups had significantly (p=0.01, p=0.04) better dietary habits than the poor HbA1c and PPG control groups. When compared to the poor PPG group, the good PPG group made significantly (p=0.04) better dietary decisions with regard to the main meal’s carbohydrate quality and quantity. Body Mass Index, WC, AL and extent of dietetic contact didn’t play a significant role in the glycaemic classification (good vs. poor) of participants. Conclusion: The longer T2DM is present, the worse PPG control becomes. Optimal dietary habits play a significant positive role in both the long- and short term glycaemic control of people with T2DM in Thabazimbi. The choice and portion size of the main meal’s carbohydrates has been identified to be the most important dietary role-player in the glycaemic control of this study population. This study also shows that if individuals with DM spend enough time with a dietician, it could potentially contribute to better dietary compliance and subsequent better glycaemic control.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Inleiding: Intensiewe leefstyl intervensie onder diegene met Tipe 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) word geassosieer met gewigsverlies, beduidende verlaging in HbA1c% asook ’n vermindering in verskeie kardiovaskulêre-siekte risiko faktore. Plattelandse dorpies beleef egter ’n tekort aan dieetkundiges, wat gevolglik toegang tot leefstyl intervensie beperk. Daar is ook ’n beperkte hoeveelheid Suid-Afrikaanse studies wat die impak van eetgewoontes, antropometriese status, aktiwiteitsvlak en dieetkundige-begeleide dieetterapie op glisemiese beheer in T2DM pasiënte evalueer. Die doel van die studie was dus om die verband tussen glisemiese beheer en leefstyl gewoontes in volwassenes met T2DM in Thabazimbi te bepaal. Die rol van die dieetkundige met betrekking tot optimale glisemiese beheer was ook met groot belangstelling nagevors. Metodes: Diegene (>18 jaar) met T2DM wat oor ’n onlangse HbA1c toets uitslag beskik het en nie enige akute siektes/infeksie gehad het nie, is oor ’n 7 maande werwingsperiode ingesluit. Gewig, lengte en middel-omtrek was gemeet, aktiwiteitsvlak en dieetkundig-kontak bepaal, en eetgewoontes geassesseer m.b.v. ’n gestruktueerde vraelys. Ses tuis-bepaalde na-ete bloedsuiker lesings en HbA1c% was gebruik om glisemiese beheer te evalueer. Resultate: Twee-en-sestig (59.7% mans) pasiënte het aan die studie deelgeneem. Die gemiddelde ouderdom was 60.13 ±10.85 jaar en die gemiddelde T2DM duurte 121 ±96.56 maande. Slegs 6.45% van die deelnemers het ’n gesonde Liggaam-Massa-Indeks gehad. Meeste (90.32%) deelnemers se middel-omtrek was ook ruimskoots verhoog. Die helfte van die deelnemers het ’n passiewe/lae aktiwiteitsvlak gehad, terwyl 48.39% ’n aktief/matig-aktiewe aktiwiteitsvlak gerapporteer het. Amper al (95%) die deelnemers het aangedui dat mense met T2DM ’n dieetkundige moet raadpleeg vir dieetterapie. Slegs 63% van die deelnemers het egter werklik ’n dieetkundige vir diabetes dieetterapie geraadpleeg. Gemiddelde dieet-gehoorsaamheid was 74.53 ±10.93% en die gemiddelde HbA1c % en na-ete bloedsuiker vlakke van deelnemers was onderskeidelik 7.50 ±1.62% en 8.90 ±3.21mmol/l. Daar was ’n beduidende negatiewe verband (r=-0.31; p=0.02) tussen HbA1c % en persentasie dieet-gehoorsaamheid. ’n Beduidende verband was ook tussen persentasie dieet-gehoorsaamheid en die hoeveelheid voltooide dieetterapie sessies (r=0.40; p=0.001) asook die gemiddelde na-ete bloedglukose vlak (r=-0.34; p=0.01) geïdentifiseer. Na-ete bloedglukose het ook ’n beduidende positiewe (r=0.30; p=0.02) verband met die duurte van diabetes getoon. Beide die goeie HbA1c en goeie na-ete glukose groepe het beduidend (p=0.01, p=0.04) beter eetgewoontes as die swak HbA1c en swak na-ete glukose groepe gehad. Die goeie na-ete glukose groep het veral beduidend (p=0.04) beter dieet keuses m.b.t die hoofmaal se koolhidraat kwaliteit en kwantiteit gemaak. Lengte-Massa-Indeks, middel-omtrek, aktiwiteitsvlak en die mate van dieetkundige kontak het nie ’n beduidende rol in die glisemiese klassifikasie (goed teenoor swak) van deelnemers gespeel nie. Gevolgtrekking: Na-ete bloedsuiker beheer word al hoe slegter hoe langer T2DM teenwoordig is. Optimale eetgewoontes speel ’n beduidende positiewe rol in beide die lang- en kort-termyn glisemiese beheer van mense met T2DM in Thabazimbi. Die keuse en porsie grootte van die hoofmaal se koolhidrate blyk die belangrikste dieet rolspeler in die glisemiese beheer van die studie populasie te wees. Die studie dui ook aan dat as mense met T2DM genoeg tyd saam met ’n dieetkundige deurbring, dit moontlik kan bydra tot beter dieet-gehoorsaamheid en gevolglik beter glisemiese beheer.

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