Influence of strigolactones and auxin on Sutherlandia (Lessertia) frutescens in vitro plant tissue cultures

Grobbelaar, Maria Catharina (2013-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R. Br., also known as Lessertia frutescens, is a leguminous shrub indigenous to southern Africa. Traditionally this plant has been used for the treatment of various ailments; current interest in this plant has escalated after it was announced that extracts could aid in the relief and treatment of HIV/AIDS. These extracts contain an array of metabolites, including sutherlandins, sutherlandiosides L-arginine, L-canavanine, asparagine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and various other amino acids, which have been linked to medicinal uses. This study focused on the use of hormones to promote the growth and metabolite production of S. frutescens in vitro cultures. The growth promoting substances used in this study were synthetic analogues of strigolactones, GR24 and Nijmegen-1, and auxins, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). The first part of this study focused on the effects strigolactones and auxins, alone and combined, had on the growth of S. frutescens in vitro nodal explants. The S. frutescens nodal explants had the most significant improvement in growth with treatments that contained 1 mg/L NAA. These treatments increased growth via fresh and dry mass and plant length. The metabolite content of these nodal explant cultures was evaluated using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) metabolite analysis. The treatments that contained 1 mg/L NAA differed in metabolite composition and showed an increase in metabolite quantity. The SU1 content of the treated plants was also quantified using LC/MS techniques and a combination of 1 mg/L NAA and Nijmegen-1 doubled the amount of SU1. The effect of strigolactones was also studied using hairy root cultures of S. frutescens. Strigolactones alone slightly inhibited the formation of lateral transgenic roots, but when these chemicals were used in combination with auxins, significant reduction in dry mass and lateral root outgrowth resulted. Of the treatments tested in this study, 0.1 mg/L IBA caused noticeable alterations to the metabolite pool, with amino acids such as GABA and arginine accumulating at higher levels than the control explants. The exploitation of hormones to up-regulate the growth and metabolism of the medicinally important plant, Sutherlandia frutescens, proved successful in this study. The use of in vitro nodal explants along with hairy root cultures has assisted in the establishment of a stable system for the up-regulation of metabolites.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R. Br., ook bekend as Lessertia frutescens, is 'n peulagtige struik inheems tot suider Afrika. Tradisioneel is die plant vir 'n groot verskeidenheid van kwale gebruik; huidige belangstelling in die plant het toegeneem nadat dit bekend gemaak was dat ekstraksies vanaf hierdie plant verligting kan bied vir MIV/VIGS. Hierdie ekstrakte bevat 'n verskeidenheid van metaboliete, insluitend sutherlandins, sutherlandiosiede L-arginien, L-kanavanien, asparagien, gamma-aminobottersuur (GABS), asook verskeie ander aminosure wat medisinale gebruike het. Die studie het gefokus op die gebruik van hormone om die groei en metaboliete van S. frutescens in vitro kulture te vermeerder. Die groei reguleerders wat in hierdie studie gebruik was, was die sintetiese analoë van strigolaktoon, GR24 en Nijmegen-1, asook die ouksiene, indool-3-bottersuur (IBS) en naftaleen asynsuur (NAS). Die eerste deel van die studie het gefokus op die effek van strigolaktoon en ouksien, alleen en in kombinasie, op die groei van S. frutescens in vitro nodale mikrostingels. Die S. frutescens nodale mikrostingels wat behandel was met 1 mg/L NAS het die aansienlikste toename in groei getoon. Hierdie behandeling het groei bevorder deur middel van vars en droë massa en plant lengte. Die metaboliet inhoud van die behandelde mikrostingels was met behulp van vloeistofchromatografie/massa spektrometrie (VC/MS) ondersoek. Al die behandelinge wat 1 mg/L NAS bevat het, het in metaboliet samestelling verskil en het ook 'n toename in metaboliet hoeveelheid getoon. Die SU1 inhoud van die behandelde plante was ook met behulp van VC/MS tegnieke gekwantifiseer en dit was gevind dat 'n kombinasie van 1 mg/L NAS en Nijmegen-1 die hoeveelheid SU1 verdubbel het. Die effek van strigolaktoon op harige wortel kulture van S. frutescens was ook ondersoek. Strigolaktoon alleen het die formasie van laterale transgeniese wortels effens inhibeer, maar wanneer hierdie chemikalieë saam met ouksiene gebruik was, was die aansienlike afname van die massa en inhibisie van die laterale wortel uitgroeisels meer prominent. Van al die behandelinge wat in hierdie studie getoets is, het 0.1 mg/L IBS die mees merkbare veranderinge in metaboliete meegebring en aminosure soos GABS en arginien het teen hoër vlakke versamel. Die uitbuiting van hormone om groei en metaboliet produksie te bevorder in die belangrike medisinale plant, Sutherlandia frutescens, was suksesvol in hierdie studie. Die gebruik van nodale mikrostingels asook harige wortel kulture het bygedra om 'n stabiele sisteem te vestig vir die vermeerdering van metaboliete.

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