Imaging of renal hyperparathyroidism using SPECT/CT with low-dose localizing CT

Doruyter, Alexander Govert George (2013-12)

Thesis (MMed)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background: Hybrid imaging using single photon emission computed tomography/low dose (x-ray) computed tomography (SPECT/LDCT) is of benefit in preoperative scintigraphy of primary hyperparathyroidism. The role of SPECT/LDCT in preoperative assessment of renal hyperparathyroidism has not yet been examined. The aim of the study was to determine whether SPECT/LDCT conferred any benefit over SPECT alone in terms of detection and/or localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue in this patient group. Methods: A retrospective study of patients with renal hyperparathyroidism and positive planar and SPECT scintigraphy was undertaken. All patients underwent planar scintigraphy using 99mTc-pertechnetate immediately followed by 99mTc-sestamibi as well as SPECT/LDCT 60 min after sestamibi injection and a delayed static image to assess for differential washout at 2-3 hours. Planar subtraction images were generated. For each patient, two nuclear physicians reported on planar+ SPECT images followed by planar + SPECT/LDCT images (assisted by a radiologist). Confidence for the presence of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue as well as confidence of location was scored on a Likert-type scale. Interpretation of planar + SPECT was compared with interpretation of planar + SPECT/LDCT. The impact of LDCT on equivocal lesions and number of ectopic lesions detected was also assessed. Results: Twenty patients (M:13; F:7) imaged between February 2008 and June 2011 were included [mean age: 40 years (24 – 55)]. Mean creatinine was 687 μmol/l (169-1213), mean corrected calcium: 2.55 mmol/l (1.95-3.33) and median PTH 167 pmol/l (2.4 - >201). Thirty-five lesions were detected on planar and SPECT and this was unchanged after assessment of the LDCT data. Confidence for the presence of parathyroid pathology changed in 5 patients (5 lesions) with the addition of LDCT. LDCT changed the mean confidence of parathyroid pathology from 3.17 to 3.29 (p=0.16). Addition of LDCT reduced the number of equivocal lesions from 18 (14 patients) to 14 (10 patients) (p=0.13). The addition of LDCT changed localization in 4 lesions (3 patients). Confidence in localization of pathology changed in 9 lesions (7 patients) and the mean localization confidence score was improved from 4.2 to 4.46 (p=0.002) with LDCT. The number of lesions classified as ectopic increased from 5 (on planar+SPECT) to 8 (with addition of LDCT) (p=0.25). Conclusion: In renal hyperparathyroidism SPECT/LDCT altered localization of lesions detected on planar and SPECT alone and improved reader confidence of localization accuracy. SPECT/LDCT conferred no additional benefit over SPECT in terms of detection, confidence of parathyroid pathology or ability to distinguish equivocal from non-equivocal parathyroid lesions. The addition of LDCT did not detect significantly more ectopic lesions. Whereas the minor improvement in reader confidence of localization (with addition of LDCT) was of questionable clinical significance, we speculate that the changed and presumably improved localization of lesions on SPECT/LDCT had potential clinical impact in a significant proportion of patients. On this basis we recommend the use of hybrid SPECT/LDCT in imaging of renal hyperparathyroidism when surgery is considered.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Agtergrond: Hibriedbeelding met enkelfoton emissie rekenaartomografie / lae dosis rekenaartomografie (EFERT/LDRT) is voordelig in pre-operatiewe beelding van primêre hiperparatiroïedisme. Die rol van EFERT/RT in pre-operatiewe evaluering van renale hiperparatiroïedisme is nog nie ondersoek nie. Die doel van hierdie studie was om in hierdie pasiëntgroep te bepaal of EFERT/RT 'n voordeel bo EFERT alleen verleen. Metode: 'n Retrospektiewe studie van pasiënte met renale hiperparatiroïedisme en positiewe planare en EFERT flikkergrafie is onderneem. Na die toediening van 99mTc-pertegnetaat is planare beelding op alle pasiënte gedoen, onmiddellik gevolg deur 99mTc-sestamibi sowel as EFERT/RT beelding 60 min na sestamibi inspuiting en 'n laat statiese beeld vir differensiële uitwas op 2-3 uur. Planare subtraksiebeelde is verkry. Twee kerngeneeskundiges het die planare + EFERT beelde van elke pasiënt gerapporteer, waarna die planare + EFERT/RT beelde met die hulp van 'n radioloog gerapporteer is. Sekerheid oor die teenwoordigheid van hiperfunksionerende paratiroïedweefsel sowel as die sekerheid oor die lokalisering daarvan, is op 'n Likert-tipe skaal verkry. Interpretasie van planare + EFERT is vergelyk met die interpretasie van planare + EFERT/RT. Die impak van LDRT op twyfelagtige letsels en die aantal ektopiese letsels waargeneem, is ook bepaal. Resultate: Twintig pasiënte (M:13; F:7) met beelding tussen Februarie 2008 en Junie 2011 is ingesluit [gemiddelde ouderdom: 40 jaar (24-55)] . Die gemiddelde kreatinien was 687 μmol/l (169-1213), gemiddelde gekorrigeerde kalsium 2.55 mmol/l (1.95-3.33) en mediaan PTH 167 pmol/l (2.4->201). Vyf en dertig letsels is op planare en EFERT beelde waargeneem en was onveranderd na assessering van die LDRT-data. Sekerheid oor die teenwoordigheid van paratiroïedpatologie het verander in 5 pasiënte (5 letsels) met die toevoeging van LDRT. LDRT het die gemiddelde sekerheid van paratiroïedpatologie van 3.17 tot 3.29 verander (p = 0.16). Toevoeging van LDRT het die aantal twyfelagtige letsels van 18 (14 pasiënte) tot 14 (10 pasiënte) verminder (p = 0.13). Die byvoeging van LDRT het die lokalisering in 4 letsels (3 pasiënte) verander. Sekerheid oor die lokalisering van patologie is in 9 letsels (7 pasiënte) verander en die gemiddelde lokalisering betroubaarheidswaarde is verbeter van 4.2 tot 4.46 (p = 0.002) met LDRT. Met die byvoeging van LDRT het die aantal letsels geklassifiseer as ektopies van 5 tot 8 (p = 0.25) toegeneem. Gevolgtrekking: In renale hiperparatiroïedisme het EFERT/RT die lokalisering van letsels wat op planare + EFERT beelding alleen waargeneem is, verander en die leser se vertroue om akkuraat te lokaliseer verbeter. EFERT/LDRT het geen bykomende voordeel bo EFERT in terme van die opsporing, sekerheid van paratiroïedpatologie of onderskeidingsvermoë tussen twyfelagtige teenoor nie-twyfelagtige paratiroïedletsels verleen nie. Met die byvoeging van LDRT is nie beduidend meer ektopiese letsels gevind nie. Terwyl die geringe verbetering in die sekerheid van lokalisering (met die byvoeging van LDRT) van twyfelagtige kliniese betekenis was, spekuleer ons dat die verandering en vermoedelik verbeterde lokalisering van letsels op EFERT/LDRT ʼn potensiële kliniese impak het in 'n beduidende aantal pasiënte. Die gebruik van EFERT/LDRT in die beelding van renale hiperparatiroïedisme wanneer chirurgie oorweeg word, word dus vir bogenoemde rede aanbeveel.

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