HIV knowledge and sexual risk behaviour of grade 12 learners in the Cape Metropole, Cape Town

Jaars, Cleopatra (2013-12)

Thesis (MCurr)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The HIV pandemic threatens the social, emotional, and physical development of all persons, especially the youth. Adolescents are more at risk of contracting HIV as their lifestyle often involves sexual exploration and experimentation. Effective educational interventions are central to HIV prevention in South Africa. Being a clinical nurse practitioner in a primary health care (PHC) facility, the principal investigator observed that school learners failed to practice safe sex and demonstrated little knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention. The aim of the study was to investigate the reported level of HIV knowledge and sexual risk behaviour of grade 12 school learners in the Eastern Sub-District of the Cape Metropole, Cape Town. A descriptive, non-experimental, research design was employed with a primarily quantitative approach. The study population comprised grade 12 learners from high schools in the Eastern Sub-District of the Cape Metropole in Cape Town (N=7940). A total of 92 participants from four schools (2 public and 2 private) were included in the sample by using a cluster sampling method. A self-completion semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data was collected by the principal investigator and a trained field worker. Ethical approval was obtained from the Health Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University (N11/07/225). Permission to conduct the research was obtained from the Department of Education. Reliability and validity were assured by means of a pilot study and the use of experts in the field of nursing research and statistics. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse data. Statistical associations were determined using ANOVA and the Mann-Whitney U tests. The qualitative data was analysed thematically and then quantified. The results show that the average HIV/AIDS knowledge score of participants was 60.73%. However, many gaps in HIV/AIDS knowledge were identified. Only 77.2% (n=71) of participants knew the meaning of HIV, 80.4% (n=74) did not know all the ways in which HIV can be transmitted and only 8.7% (n=8) knew how to safely use a condom. The majority of participants (67.4%; n=62) believed in the myth that HIV can be cured and 18.5% (n=17) reported that a traditional healer can cure HIV. With regard to risky behaviour, half of the participants at the time of the study (51%; n=47) reported sexual engagement and 20% (n=9) of these respondents did not use condoms. Furthermore, 25% (n=23) had used alcohol before having sex. There were no association found between the knowledge about HIV/AIDS of participants and their sexual risk behaviour. In view of these study findings, participants are exposing themselves to high risk sexual behaviour that may increase their chances of acquiring sexually transmitted infections including HIV. Several recommendations were identified, including the strengthening of HIV and STI education linked to sexual risk reduction, open communication and additional information sources, availability of condoms at schools and improved access to HIV testing at schools.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die jeug se sosiale, emosionele en fisiese ontwikkeling word deur die MIV-pandemie gekortwiek. As gevolg van hulle seksuele eksperimentering, word adolessente as ʼn hoë risikogroep beskou, sover dit die ontwikkeling van MIV aangaan. Gevolglik speel onderrig ʼn belangrike rol in MIV voorkoming. Die beoefening van onveilige seks, en onvoldoende kennis rakende MIV/VIGS-voorkoming, is deur die primêre navorser, ʼn kliniese verpleegpraktisyn in die primêre gesondheidsorg omgewing, waargeneem. Die studie het dit ten doel om te bepaal wat die MIV-kennis vlakke, en die seksuele gedrag risiko van Graad 12 leerders in die Oostelike sub-distrik van die Kaapstadse Metropool is. ʼn Beskrywende, nie-eksperimentele navorsingsontwerp is gebruik, met ʼn hoofsaaklike kwantitatiewe benadering. Uit die studie populasie van Graad 12 leerders in die Oostelike sub-distrik van die Kaapstadse Metropool hoërskole (N=7940), is ʼn steekproef van 92 deelnemers uit vier hoërskole (twee staatskole en twee privaatskole) gekies – die trossteekproefnemingsmetode is gebruik. Data is versamel deur middel van ʼn semi-gestruktureerde vraelys wat deur die deelnemers self voltooi is. Toestemming vir die uitvoer van die studie is verkry van die Etiese Komitee van die Mediese Fakulteit van die Universiteit van Stellenbosch (N11/07/225), asook die Wes-Kaapse Departement van Onderwys. Die betroubaarheid en geldigheid van die studie is verseker deur die uitvoer van ʼn voorstudie, en is verder versterk deur gebruik te maak van kundiges in die veld van statistiek en verpleegnavorsing. Data is ontleed deur middel van beskrywende statistiese metodes en assosiasies is bepaal deur gebruik te maak van variansie-analise (“ANOVA”) en Mann-Whitney U toetse. Die bevindinge is in frekwensie tabelle en histogramme vervat. Die kwalitatiewe data is gekodeer en gekategoriseer, waarna temas geïdentifiseer is. Alhoewel die studie-bevindinge aangedui het dat die deelnemers ʼn gemiddelde MIV/VIGS-kennis telling van 60.73% behaal het, is verskeie leemtes in hulle bestaande kennis geïdentifiseer. Slegs 77.2% (n=71) van die deelnemers het geweet wat MIV beteken, terwyl 80.4% (n=74) nie geweet het hoe MIV oorgedra word nie. Slegs 8.7% (n=8) van die deelnemers het kennis gehad rakende veilige kondoom gebruik. Die meerderheid van die deelnemers (67.4%; n=62) glo dat MIV genees kan word en 18.5% (n=17) het aangedui dat MIV deur ʼn tradisionele geneesheer genees kan word. Hoë-risiko gedrag, spesifiek seksuele aktiwiteit (51%; n=47%) sonder kondome (20%; n=9) is rapporteer. ʼn Verdere 25% (n=23) van die deelnemers het rapporteer dat hulle alkohol gebruik voor seks, maar daar was geen assosiasie tussen die vlak van MIV/VIGS-kennis en hoë-risiko gedrag nie. Die bevindinge dui daarop dat die deelnemers hulself blootstel aan hoë-risiko seksuele gedrag met die gevolg dat hul kans om MIV te kry verhoog. Die aanbevelings, gegrond op die bevindinge, sluit in: ʼn groter fokus op onderrig wat verband hou met MIV en seksueel oordraagbare infeksies wat gekoppel is aan ʼn verlaging in hoe-risiko seksuele gedrag, openhartige kommunikasie en bykomende inligtingshulpbronne, beskikbaarheid van kondome by skole, asook verbeterde toegang tot MIV toetsing by skole.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/85690
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