Value at risk and expected shortfall : traditional measures and extreme value theory enhancements with a South African market application

Dicks, Anelda (2013-12)

Thesis (MComm)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Accurate estimation of Value at Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) is critical in the management of extreme market risks. These risks occur with small probability, but the financial impacts could be large. Traditional models to estimate VaR and ES are investigated. Following usual practice, 99% 10 day VaR and ES measures are calculated. A comprehensive theoretical background is first provided and then the models are applied to the Africa Financials Index from 29/01/1996 to 30/04/2013. The models considered include independent, identically distributed (i.i.d.) models and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) stochastic volatility models. Extreme Value Theory (EVT) models that focus especially on extreme market returns are also investigated. For this, the Peaks Over Threshold (POT) approach to EVT is followed. For the calculation of VaR, various scaling methods from one day to ten days are considered and their performance evaluated. The GARCH models fail to converge during periods of extreme returns. During these periods, EVT forecast results may be used. As a novel approach, this study considers the augmentation of the GARCH models with EVT forecasts. The two-step procedure of pre-filtering with a GARCH model and then applying EVT, as suggested by McNeil (1999), is also investigated. This study identifies some of the practical issues in model fitting. It is shown that no single forecasting model is universally optimal and the choice will depend on the nature of the data. For this data series, the best approach was to augment the GARCH stochastic volatility models with EVT forecasts during periods where the first do not converge. Model performance is judged by the actual number of VaR and ES violations compared to the expected number. The expected number is taken as the number of return observations over the entire sample period, multiplied by 0.01 for 99% VaR and ES calculations.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Akkurate beraming van Waarde op Risiko (Value at Risk) en Verwagte Tekort (Expected Shortfall) is krities vir die bestuur van ekstreme mark risiko’s. Hierdie risiko’s kom met klein waarskynlikheid voor, maar die finansiële impakte is potensieel groot. Tradisionele modelle om Waarde op Risiko en Verwagte Tekort te beraam, word ondersoek. In ooreenstemming met die algemene praktyk, word 99% 10 dag maatstawwe bereken. ‘n Omvattende teoretiese agtergrond word eers gegee en daarna word die modelle toegepas op die Africa Financials Index vanaf 29/01/1996 tot 30/04/2013. Die modelle wat oorweeg word sluit onafhanklike, identies verdeelde modelle en Veralgemeende Auto-regressiewe Voorwaardelike Heteroskedastiese (GARCH) stogastiese volatiliteitsmodelle in. Ekstreemwaarde Teorie modelle, wat spesifiek op ekstreme mark opbrengste fokus, word ook ondersoek. In hierdie verband word die Peaks Over Threshold (POT) benadering tot Ekstreemwaarde Teorie gevolg. Vir die berekening van Waarde op Risiko word verskillende skaleringsmetodes van een dag na tien dae oorweeg en die prestasie van elk word ge-evalueer. Die GARCH modelle konvergeer nie gedurende tydperke van ekstreme opbrengste nie. Gedurende hierdie tydperke, kan Ekstreemwaarde Teorie modelle gebruik word. As ‘n nuwe benadering oorweeg hierdie studie die aanvulling van die GARCH modelle met Ekstreemwaarde Teorie vooruitskattings. Die sogenaamde twee-stap prosedure wat voor-af filtrering met ‘n GARCH model behels, gevolg deur die toepassing van Ekstreemwaarde Teorie (soos voorgestel deur McNeil, 1999), word ook ondersoek. Hierdie studie identifiseer sommige van die praktiese probleme in model passing. Daar word gewys dat geen enkele vooruistkattingsmodel universeel optimaal is nie en die keuse van die model hang af van die aard van die data. Die beste benadering vir die data reeks wat in hierdie studie gebruik word, was om die GARCH stogastiese volatiliteitsmodelle met Ekstreemwaarde Teorie vooruitskattings aan te vul waar die voorafgenoemde nie konvergeer nie. Die prestasie van die modelle word beoordeel deur die werklike aantal Waarde op Risiko en Verwagte Tekort oortredings met die verwagte aantal te vergelyk. Die verwagte aantal word geneem as die aantal obrengste waargeneem oor die hele steekproefperiode, vermenigvuldig met 0.01 vir die 99% Waarde op Risiko en Verwagte Tekort berekeninge.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/85674
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