Grey water reclamation utilising solar thermal energy

Hartwig, Gerhard Rudolf (2013-12)

Thesis (MScEng)-- Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to obtain clean drinkable water from treated sewage effluent by using a solar-powered distillation cycle. Technologies and concepts were borrowed from the solar desalination industry to propose a unique circular distillation cell design. From the design, a specific mathematical correlation was developed to predict the distillate mass flow rate by using only evaporation and condensation temperature as inputs. This model was incorporated into a simulation model built using Transient System Simulation software. Long-term simulations were carried out to determine the operating capabilities of the design. A prototype was successfully constructed and operated. Experimental results indicated good agreement with the mass flow rate mathematical correlation. Water quality levels were tested against the South African National Standard 241 national drinking water quality standard. Four quality parameters are outside acceptable levels. Evidence suggested that acceptable quality levels could be reached. The circular distillation cell design is a major contribution made by this research. Another contribution is the simulation model capable of predicting an output for different locations. Finally, the proposed prototype is potentially a very valuable device contributing towards the reduction of consumer demand in terms of water and energy as well as the household load on the wastewater treatment system.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie tesis is om te beskryf hoe behandelde rioolwater deur middel van ’n son aangedrewe distillasiesisteem gesuiwer kan word om drinkbare water as eindproduk te lewer. Die nodige tegnologieë en konsepte is oorgeneem uit kommersiële sonaangedrewe ontsoutingsisteme om met ’n unieke ontwerp voorendag te kom wat uit ’n sirkelvormige natuurlike konveksie distillasiesel bestaan. Met behulp van hierdie ontwerp is ’n wiskundige korrelasie ontwikkel om die gesuiwerde water se massavloei te bepaal. Slegs die verdampings- en kondensasietemperature word as insetwaardes gebruik om die massavloei te bereken. ’n Simulasiemodel is met behulp van die Transient System Simulation programmatuur gebou. Die wiskundige korrelasie is by die simulasiemodel geïnkorporeer om langtermynsimulasies te kan uitvoer. Voorts is ’n demonstrasiemodel suksesvol gebou en aangedryf. Eksperimentele resultate toon goeie ooreenstemming met die simulasieresultate. Die gesuiwerde water se gehalte is met die nationale SANS 241 drinkwaterstandaard as maatstaf getoets. Slegs vier gehalteparameters val buite die aanvaarbare vlakke, hoewel dit blyk dat hierdie elemente wel tot aanvaarbare vlakke verlaag kan word. Hierdie navorsing se grootstet bydrae is die ontwerp van die unieke sirkelvormige distillasiesel. ’n Bykomende bydra is die aanpasbaarheid van die simulasiemodel sodat dit produksievermoë op verskillende plekke kan voorspel. Die demonstrasiemodel is ’n potensieel waardevolle ontwerp wat kan bydra tot die verlaging in verbruikersaanvraag na water en energie. ’n Ontwerp van hierdie aard kan die las wat huishoudings op suiweringaanlegte vir rioolwater plaas, verlig.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/85631
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