A comparison of the early social experiences of three month old infants in Khayelitsha and the greater Stellenbosch area

Schuitmaker, Nicole (2013-12)

Thesis (MA)-- Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In all communities parents want to pass on strategies that will promote the survival of their children and foster their cultural competence. The ‘component model of parenting’, formulated by Keller (2000; 2007), captures universal propensities of parenting as well as cultural differences. The model hypothesizes that parenting styles are composed of different parenting systems, namely primary care, body contact, body stimulation, object stimulation, face-to-face interaction, and vocal stimulation. The proximal parenting style emphasizes primary care, body contact, and body stimulation, while the distal style of parenting focuses on verbal exchanges, object stimulation, and face-to-face interaction within the context of exclusive attention. According to Keller (2007), the dominance of certain systems over others can vary across cultural communities. This study aims to examine the cross-cultural conceptions of different adaptive and non-adaptive attachment qualities in three month old infants and their caregivers. This study explores whether culture-specific norms affect the development of different attachment qualities. It focuses on describing indigenous conceptions about parenting practices, socialization strategies, and caregiver beliefs. The study was conducted in the Western Cape region of South Africa. Participants included 25 mothers living in the greater Stellenbosch area and 29 mothers living in Khayelitsha. The measures included a socio-demographic questionnaire, spot observation videos, a picture card interview, and a socialization goals questionnaire. Data were coded according to coding schemes developed by Otto (2008). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and ANOVAs. The results indicated the Khayelitsha sample favoured a multiple caregiving arrangement, the proximal parenting style, and emphasized the importance of relational socialization goals. The greater Stellenbosch sample favoured an exclusive caregiving arrangement and emphasized the importance of autonomous socialization goals. Contrary to our expectations the greater Stellenbosch sample also favoured the proximal parenting style. The data demonstrates that cultural differences influence parenting practices and strategies. The data reported in this study challenge attachment theory’s universalism and provide an exploratory analysis of the different cultural conceptions regarding adaptive and non-adaptive attachment qualities. Further research using the same methodology needs to be conducted in South Africa.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In alle gemeenskappe wil ouers strategieë oordra wat die oorlewing van hulle kinders bevorder en hulle kulturele bevoegdheid koester. Die ‘component model of parenting’, wat universele neigings en kulturele verkille in ouerskap inkorporeer, is geformuleer deur Keller (2000; 2007). Die model se hipotese stel voor dat ouerskap style uit verskillende ouerskap sisteme bestaan, naamlik primêre sorg, liggaamlike kontak, liggaamlike stimulasie, voorwerp stimulasie, een-tot-een interaksie, asook verbale stimulasie. Die proksimale ouerskap styl benadruk primêre sorg, liggaamlike kontak, en liggaamlike stimulasie. Daarteenoor fokus die distale ouerskap styl op verbale interaksie, voorwerp stimulasie, en een-tot-een interaksie binne die perke van ekslusiewe aandag. Volgens Keller (2007), kan die dominansie van sekere style bo ander verskil regoor kulturele gemeenskappe. Die studie poog om die onderskye multikulterele beskouinge rondom verbondenheids aanpassings, of gebrek daaraan, by drie maande oue kinders en hul versorgers te ondersoek. Die studie ondersoek of kultuur-spesifieke norme die ontwikkeling van verskillende verbondenheids kwaliteite affekteer. Dit fokus op die bekrywing van inheemse beskouinge omtrent ouerskap, sosialiserings strategieë, en die versorger se oortuigings. Die steekproef ws gebaseer in die Wes-Kaap van Suid-Afrika. Die steekproef het bestaan uit 25 moeders wat in die groter Stellenbosch area woon en 29 moeders wat in Khayelitsha woon. Die maatstawwe het ‘n sosio-demografiese vraelys, 20 op die plek observasie videos, ‘n onderhoud met prentjie kaarte, en ‘n sosialiserings doel vraelys ingesluit. Die data was gekodeer volgense koderings skemas wat deur Otto (2008) ontwikkel was. Die data was toe geanaliseer met beskrywende statistiek, t-toetse, Mann-Whitney toetse, en ANOVAs. Die resultate toon dat die Khayelitsha steekproef ‘n verskeie versorging benadering en die proksimale ouerskap styl verkies het. Hulle het die belangrikheid van verwante sosialiserings doelwitte benadruk. Die groter Stellenbosch steekproef het ‘n eksklusiewe versorgings benadering verkies en het die belangrikheid van autonome sosialiserings doelwitte benadruk. Teen verwagtinge het hulle ook die proksimale ouerskap styl verkies. Die data dui aan dat kulturele verskille beïnvloed ouerskap praktyke en strategieë. Die data wat in hierdie studie gerapporteer is, bevraagteken gehegtheidsteorie se universalisme en verskaf ‘n verkennende analise van die verskillende kulturele opvattings oor aanpasbare en nie-aanpasbare gehegtheids eienskappe. Verdere navorsing volgens dieselfde metodes moet nog in Suid Afrika gedoen word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/85628
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