A case study of source-sink relationships using shoot girdling and berry classification (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon)

Joubert, Chandre (2013-03)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The relationships between leaf and fruit represent a fundamental concept in perennial plants. This concept allows to understand and to manage, with regard to farming, the balance of a vine, which is important in terms of fruit quality (i.e. fruit composition), mainly when it comes to producing wines of different categories and styles. The understanding of vine structure, physiology and vine functioning ultimately allows for appropriate recommendations to be given with regard to farming procedures. These include the adaptation of the canopy architecture to achieve a certain yield per vine, the determination of an appropriate fruit microclimate as well as the prediction of harvest dates. One of the central notions of vine balance involves the relationship between the source and the sink organs. The definition of source-sink relationships incorporates several concepts, including the ability of a source tissue to produce carbohydrates through photosynthesis, the transport of these carbohydrates to various plant organs-tissues via appropriate transport channels, and the assimilation and storage of the carbohydrates in the sink organs. In past years, a number of simple ratios have been created to incorporate the relationship between source and sink organs and thereby define vine balance in order to aid in practical management decisions (choice of a training system, irrigation, canopy manipulation etc.). However, vine functioning is very complex and cannot be defined accurately by simple, static ratios. More integrated and dynamic physiological indicators of vine balance and functioning are needed in order to understand the complex communication between organs and ultimately improve on farming practices. In order to achieve this, a better grasp of source-sink relationships, including the signalisation between organs and the functioning of the transport tissues is required. A two year experiment was proposed to study the interaction between source and sink organs using a combination of both primary shoot girdling methods and berry classification according to size. Girdling removes the bark and phloem tissue, thereby interrupting carbon import as well as water flow to the bunch to a certain degree. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the complexity of vine functioning by investigating the dynamics of berry sugar and water accumulation (used as physiological indicators) and the influence thereof on berry fresh mass evolution. Furthermore, the use of berry sugar loading was proposed as an improved physiological indicator of vine balance as it is directly linked to source and sink functioning. Sugar production and the dynamics of berry sugar accumulation rely on photosynthesis which in turn is dependent on stomatal conductance and therefore also incorporates the effects of external abiotic factors (temperature, light and water). It furthermore gives a direct indication of sink functioning as it shows the progressive accumulation of sugar throughout the ripening period and the possible consequences on berry volume evolution. A primary shoot which bore two bunches was used to represent a biological replicate. The lower bunches were girdled above and below in order to completely isolate them from any carbohydrate import. These bunches, along with the upper ungirdled bunches and two control bunches from another shoot were sampled. The berries from these bunches were classified according to diameter, thereby providing the unique opportunity to study berries of the same volume/size. Measurements were done to determine the fresh and dry masses of the sampled berries, as well as to analyse the concomitant sugar concentrations. It was found that girdling clearly had an effect on berry sugar dynamics and the method was improved in the second year of the trial. Girdling in interaction with berry classification according to diameter demonstrated that berries from the same size could have different sugar concentrations. It further showed that, to a certain degree, a relationship exists between the first rapid phase of sugar accumulation and the post véraison increase in berry fresh mass, until the plateau of fruit sugar accumulation, which generally occurs around a sugar concentration of 20 Brix. Additionally, and more importantly, it was found that vine functioning and the balance between the source and the sink organs may be controlled to a certain degree. There is a strong degree of compensation within a vine which results from signalling between and within organs. When taking the results of this study into consideration, it becomes clear that the classical ratios used to quantify the complex relationships between the fruit and the leaves may not be completely adequate to do so. The current way of looking at source-sink relationships and thereby determining whether a vine is balanced or not is over-simplified and there are numerous limitations involved in this approach. The vine is far more complex and various aspects must be taken into consideration before any claims can be made concerning source-sink relationships and consequently leaf to fruit balance.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die verhoudings tussen blaar en vrug verteenwoordig ‘n fundamentele konsep in meerjarige plante. Begrip van hierdie konsep maak dit moontlik om in boerdery die balans van ‘n wingerdstok te verstaan en bestuur. Hierdie wingerdbalans is belangrik in terme van vrugkwaliteit (d.w.s. vrugsamestelling), hoofsaaklik met betrekking tot die produksie van wyne van verskillende kategorieë en style. Begrip van die wingerdstok se struktuur, fisiologie en funksionering maak dit moontlik om gepaste aanbevelings te maak rakende boerdery prosedures. Dit sluit in die aanpassing van die lower argitektuur om ‘n sekere opbrengs per wingerdstok te verkry, die vasstel van ‘n geskikte vrug mikroklimaat asook die voorspelling van oesdatums. Een van die sentrale denkwyses rondom wingerdstok funksionering behels die die bron-vragpunt verhouding. Die definisie van bron-vragpunt verhoudings inkorporeer verskeie konsepte, insluitende die vermoë van ‘n bronweefsel om koolhidrate te produseer deur fotosintese, die vervoer van hierdie koolhidrate na verskeie plantorgaan weefsels via die gepaste vervoerkanale asook die opname en berging van hierdie koolhidrate in die vragpunt organe. In die verlede is ‘n aantal eenvoudige verhoudings geskep om die verband tussen die bron en vragpunt organe te beskryf en sodoende die wingerdstokbalans te definieer met die doel om ondersteuning te bied in praktiese bestuursbesluite (die keuse van opleistelsel, besproeiing, lowermanipulasie, ens.). Wingerdstok funksionering is egter baie kompleks en kan nie akkuraat gedefinieer word deur eenvoudige, statiese verhoudings nie. Meer geïntegreerde en dinamiese fisiologiese aanwysers van wingerdstokbalans en funksionering is nodig om die komplekse kommunikasie tussen organe te verstaan en uiteindelik boerdery praktyke te verbeter. Om dit te bereik is ‘n beter begrip van bron-vragpunt verhoudings asook die seinoordrag tussen organe en die werking van die vervoerweefsels nodig. ‘n Twee jaar lange eksperiment is voorgestel om die interaksie tussen bron- en benuttingsorgane te ondersoek deur gebruik te maak van beide die primêre loot ringelering metode en korrel klassifikasie volgens grootte. Ringelering verwyder die bas en floëem weefsel en onderbreek sodoende koolstof invoer sowel as watertoevoer na die tros tot ‘n sekere mate. Die doel van die studie was om die kompleksiteit van wingerdstok funksionering aan te toon deur die dinamika van suiker en water akkumulasie in die korrel te ondersoek asook die invloed daarvan op korrel vars massa ontwikkeling. Verder is die gebruik van korrel suikerlading voorgestel as ‘n beter fisiologiese aanduiding van wingerdstok funksionering aangesien dit direk geassosieer is met bron-vragpunt funksionering. Suikerproduksie en die dinamika van suiker akkumulasie in die korrel berus op fotosintese wat weer afhanklik is van stomatale geleiding en daarom ook die effek van eksterne abiotiese faktore (temperatuur, lig en water) inkorporeer. Dit gee verder ‘n direkte aanduiding van die funksionering van die vragpunt organe omdat dit die progressiewe akkumulasie van suiker gedurende die rypwordingsperiode aantoon, asook die moontlike gevolge op korrelvolume ontwikkeling. ‘n Primêre loot wat twee trosse dra is gebruik om ‘n biologiese herhaling te verteenwoordig. Die laer trosse is bo en onder geringeleer om hulle heeltemal te isoleer van enige koolhidraat invoer. Hierdie trosse, tesame met boonste ongeringeleerde trosse en twee kontrole trosse vanaf ‘n ander loot is gemonster. Die korrels van hierdie trosse is geklassifiseer volgens hulle deursnee, om sodoende die unieke moontlikheid daar te stel om korrels van dieselfde volume/ grootte te bestudeer. Metings is gedoen om die vars en droë massas van die gemonsterde korrels te bepaal, asook om die gepaardgaande suikerkonsentrasies te analiseer. Daar is gevind dat ringelering duidelik ‘n effek gehad het op korrelsuiker dinamika en die metode is verbeter in die tweede jaar van die proef. Ringelering in wisselwerking met korrel klassifikasie volgens korrel deursnee het aangetoon dat korrels met dieselfde grootte verskillende suikerkonsentrasies kon hê. Dit het verder aangedui dat daar, tot ‘n sekere mate, ‘n verhouding bestaan tussen die vinnige fase van suiker akkumulasie en die na-véraison toename in korrel vars massa, totdat die plato in suiker akkumulasie bereik word, gewoonlik rondom ‘n suikerkonsentrasie van 20 Brix. Daarbenewens, en van groter belang, is gevind dat wingerdstok funksionering en die balans tussen die bron en vragpunt organe onder ‘n mate van beheer is. Daar is ‘n sterk mate van kompensasie binne ‘n wingerdstok wat die gevolg is van seinoordrag tussen en binne organe in die wingerdstok. Wanneer die resultate van hierdie studie in aanmerking geneem word, word dit duidelik dat die klassieke verhoudings, wat gebruik word om wingerdstok funksionering en balans mee te bepaal, moontlik nie beduidend betekenisvol is nie. Die wyse waarop bron-vragpunt verhoudings tans beskou word is, tot ‘n mate, ‘n oorvereenvoudiging en daar is heelwat beperkinge betrokke by hierdie benadering. Die wingerd is baie meer kompleks en verskeie aspekte moet in aanmerking geneem word voordat enige bewering gemaak kan word rakende bron-vragpunt verhoudings.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/80390
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