Die ontwikkeling van kritiese denke deur die gebruik van drama as onderrigmetode binne die vak Lewensorientering

Stols, Amori (2013-03)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Critical theory forms part of the foundation of the South African school curriculum. The development of critical thinking is part of the general aims of the curriculum. This study will investigate the possibility of developing critical thinking through the use of drama as a teaching method in the subject Life Orientation in the further education and training phase (FET) Grades 10-12. This problem statement will be researched through a quantitative literature study. The school curriculum underwent a transformation since 1994 from a content- and teacher driven curriculum to an experience- and student centred approach to teaching. New subjects were also included in the curriculum such as Life Orientation. There are, however, various implementation problems with regards to Life Orientation. These implementation problems can mainly be attributed to the insufficient in- and pre service training that teachers receive and their inability to use progressive teaching methods. The Life Orientation curriculum does, however, provide opportunity for the development of critical thinking skills. The concept of critical theory will be investigated as philosophical and theoretical basis for this study. The influence of critical theory on the critical pedagogy of Freire will be discussed to show the relationship between education and critical theory. Furthermore, the influence of critical theory on the development of Brecht’s Epic theatre will also be investigated. Finally, a definition for critical thinking will be put forward, after which the question whether critical thinking is developed through the school curriculum will be investigated. Different approaches to drama as a teaching method is briefly discussed. Dorothy Heathcoat’s approach to drama in education is chosen as a focus for this study as she uses drama as a teaching method to teach subject content and to develop thinking skills through reflection. Heathcote uses Brecht’s Epic theatre techniques to alienate the students in order for them to critically reflect on the content that is being taught. Process drama is a more accessible approach to drama in education, but it uses the same core elements namely improvisation, role-play and reflection. Process drama consists of an improvised role-play where the class collectively takes part and the teacher-in-role steers the educational experience through questions that leads to reflection. It is during this reflection that critical thinking is developed. Process drama can be used to teach the content of Life Orientation and develop critical thinking. It, however, requires the teacher to be the director, actor, writer, teacher and self-audience. During the planning of the process drama lesson the teacher also has to follow a certain process where the theme, contexts, roles, dramatic focus, tension elements and signs for the lesson is identified. To illustrate how drama as a teaching method can be used in Life Orientation, three lesson plans are provided.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Kritiese teorie vorm deel van die grondbeginsels waarop die Suid-Afrikaanse skoolkurrikulum gebou is. Kritiese denke en die ontwikkeling daarvan is ook deel van die algemene doelstellings van die kurrikulum. Hierdie studie ondersoek die moontlikheid of kritiese denke bevorder kan word deur drama as onderrigmetode te gebruik binne die vak Lewensoriëntering in die verdere onderwys en opleidingsbaan (VOO) Grade 10-12. Daar sal van ’n kwalitatiewe navorsingsbenadering gebruik gemaak word om die probleemstelling te ondersoek in die vorm van ’n literatuurstudie. Die skoolkurrikulum het sedert 1994 getransformeer vanaf ’n inhouds-, onderwysergedrewe kurrikulum, na ’n ervaringsleer- en leerdergesentreerde benadering tot onderwys. Daar is ook nuwe vakke toegevoeg tot die kurrikulum, soos Lewensoriëntering. Daar is egter heelwat implementeringsprobleme met Lewensoriëntering en dit kan grotendeels toegeskryf word aan die swak in- en prediensopleiding wat onderwysers ontvang en hulle onvermoë om progressiewe onderrigmetodes te gebruik. Die Lewensoriëntering kurrikulum leen hom egter daartoe om kritiese denke te . As filosofiese en teoretiese basis vir die ondersoek word kritiese teorie omskryf. Die invloed van kritiese teorie op die kritiese pedagogie van Freire word bespreek om die verband tussen onderwys en kritiese teorie aan te dui. Die invloed wat kritiese teorie gehad het op die ontwikkeling van Brecht se Epiese teater word ondersoek. Daarna word kritiese denke gedefinieer en word daar ondersoek ingestel of kritiese denke deur die skoolkurrikulum ontwikkel word. Verskillende benaderings tot drama as ’n onderrigmetode word kortliks bespreek, waarna Dorothy Heathcote se benadering tot drama-in-die-onderwys as fokus vir die studie bepaal word, omdat sy drama as ’n onderrigmetode aanwend om vakinhoud te onderrig en denkprosesse te ontwikkel deur refleksie. Heathcote gebruik Brecht se Epiese teater-tegnieke om die leerders te vervreem en krities te laat reflekteer oor die inhoud wat onderrig word. Prosesdrama is ’n toegankliker vorm van Heathcote se benadering tot drama-in-die-onderwys, maar dit gebruik dieselfde kernelemente soos improvisasie, rolspel en refleksie. Prosesdrama bestaan uit geïmproviseerde rolspel waartydens die klas kollektief deelneem en die onderwyser-in-rol die leerervaring stuur en vrae aan die leerders stel wat hulle lei in refleksie. Dis tydens hierdie refleksie wat kritiese denke bevorder word. Prosesdrama kan gebruik word om die inhoud van die vak Lewensoriëntering te onderrig en kritiese denke te ontwikkel. Dit vereis wel dat die onderwyser die regisseur, akteur, skrywer, onderwyser en selftoeskouer word. Tydens die beplanning van ’n prosesdramales, moet die onderwyser ’n proses volg waar hy/sy moet besluit wat die tema, konteks, rolle, dramatiese fokus, spanningselemente en tekens gaan wees wat tydens die les gebruik gaan word. Om te illustreer hoe drama as onderrigmetode aangewend kan word binne die vak Lewensoriëntering, word drie lesplanne opgestel en bespreek.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/80384
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