A critical analysis of mitochondrial functioning and associated proteins in obesity-related cardiomyopathy

George, Siddiqah (2013-03)

Thesis (MScMedSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The mechanism behind obesity-related cardiomyopathies is at present not completely known, however, cardiac insulin resistance has been implicated as one of the main arbitrators of obesity-related cardiovascular disease. A few studies have associated perturbations in the insulin-mediated PI3K/PKB/Akt pathway in mediating this insulin resistance. Moreover, this pathway has been shown to regulate myocardial apoptosis, which in turn has been implicated in a number of cardiovascular diseases. Currently, few studies have compared the early onset and advanced effects of obesity on the heart. AIMS: To compare the early and advanced stages of obesity in terms of myocardial (i) PI3K/PKB/Akt signalling, (ii) apoptotic signalling and (iii) mitochondrial integrity. Furthermore, we aim to assess the cardiac mitochondrial (i) PI3K/PKB/Akt signalling, (ii) apoptotic signalling and (iii) integrity during the advanced stages of obesity. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a control or diet-induced obesity (DIO) group. Controls were fed a standard rat chow diet and the DIO group fed a high caloric diet (standard rat chow supplemented with sucrose and condensed milk). The diets were implemented for either 8 or 20 weeks and thereafter, the body weight, intra-peritoneal fat mass, and fasting blood glucose and insulin levels (including intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTTs)) were determined. Freeze-clamped hearts from both groups were subjected to cytosolic western blot analysis for PI3K p85 subunit, PKB/Akt, GSK-3α/β, Bad, Bax and Bcl-2. A fraction of each heart was also subjected to WB analysis of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes (I-V). Thereafter, the above mentioned proteins were also probed for in mitochondria isolated from the 20 weeks group after administering insulin and exposing the hearts to ischemia. Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity analysis was then conducted on mitochondria isolated from 20 weeks DIO and control groups and thereafter a citrate synthase (CS) activity assay was performed on these mitochondria. RESULTS: After the 8 and 20 weeks diet, the DIOs had significantly increased intra-peritoneal fat mass, fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels, compared to their controls. Cytosolic WB analysis: The tp85, pp85 and pPKB/Akt levels were significantly higher in the DIOs in comparison to the controls after 8 weeks of diet. Furthermore, pBad and Bax expression were significantly elevated in these animals. After 20 weeks of diet, the DIOs had significantly decreased pp85, tPKB/Akt and pPKB/Akt levels. The tBad was significantly elevated, while the Bad phosphorylated over total expression (P/T) ratio was significantly decreased, in these animals. CS activity assay: CS activity was significantly decreased in the DIOs, versus the controls, at 20 weeks. Mitochondrial ETC WB analysis: The subunit expression in complexes I-III and V did not differ significantly after 8 weeks however, the expression was significantly lower in complexes I and II after 20 weeks. Interestingly, the complexes III and V expression was significantly elevated. Mitochondrial OXPHOS analysis: The ADP/O ratio with (1) glutamate or (2) palmitoyl-L- carnitine as substrate, showed a significant decrease in the DIOs at 20 weeks. Mitochondrial WB analysis: The pp85 subunit was significantly elevated in the control and DIO groups, exposed to insulin and ischemia, in comparison to the untreated controls. The Bcl-2 levels were significantly decreased in the insulin and ischemia DIOs, when matched against the untreated DIOs. The tBad expression did not differ significantly between the insulin and untreated controls, while the tBad was significantly augmented in the ischemia controls versus untreated controls. All significant differences were taken as p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the initial stage of diet-induced obesity is associated with cardioprotection as there is augmented PI3K/PKB/Akt pathway signalling and a decrease in apoptotic markers. In contrast, during the advanced stages of obesity a decreased activity in PI3K/PKB/Akt pathway is associated with myocardial apoptosis and decreased mitochondrial function and integrity.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: INLEIDING: Die meganisme verantwoordelik vir vetsug-verwante kardiomiopatieë is huidiglik nie bekend nie maar kardiale insulienweerstandigheid word geïmpliseer as een van die hoof bemiddelaars van vetsug-verwante hartsiektes. Verskeie studies het versteurings in die insulien-gemediëerde PI3K/PKB/Akt pad geassosieer met die bevordering van hierdie insulienweerstandigheid. Daarbenewens is dit getoon dat hierdie pad betrokke is in die regulering van miokardiale apoptose, wat op sy beurt geïmpliseer is in 'n aantal kardiovaskulêre siektes. Daar is tans min studies beskikbaar wat die vroeë en laat gevolge van obesiteit op die hart vergelyk. DOELWITTE: Om die vroeë en gevorderde stadiums van vetsug te vergelyk in terme van miokardiale (i) PI3K/PKB/Akt seintransduksie, (ii) apoptotiese seintransduksie en (iii) mitokondriale integriteit. Verder, het die studie ten doel om die kardiale mitokondriale (i) PI3K/PKB/Akt en (ii) apoptotiese seintransduksie en (iii) integriteit in die gevorderde stadiums van vetsug te bepaal. METODES: Manlike Wistar rotte is ewekansig toegewys aan óf 'n kontrole of dieet-geïnduseerde vetsug (DIO) groep. Kontroles is met 'n normale rotkos dieet en die DIO groep met 'n hoë kalorie dieet (normale rotkos aangevul met sukrose en kondensmelk) gevoed. Die dieet is vir 8 of 20 weke volgehou en daarna was die liggaamsgewig, intra-peritoneale vet massa, en vastende bloed glukose en insulien vlakke (insluitende intra-peritoneale glukose toleransie toets (IPGTT`s)) bepaal. Gevriesklampte harte van beide groepe is onderwerp aan sitosoliese WB-analise vir die PI3K p85 subeenheid, PKB / Akt, GSK-3α/β, Bad, Bax en Bcl-2. `n Fraksie van hierdie harte is ook onderwerp aan westerse klad analise (WK-analise) van die mitokondriale elektron vervoer ketting (EVK) komplekse (I-V). Daarna is bogenoemde proteïene ondersoek in mitokondrieë geïsoleer uit die 20 weke groep ná die toediening van insulien en die blootstelling van die harte aan iskemie. Die oksigraaf mitokondriale oksidatiewe fosforilering (OXPHOS) kapasiteit analise is dan op mitokondrieë van 20 weke DIO en kontrole groepe uitgevoer en daarna is 'n sitraatsintase (SS) aktiwiteitstoets gedoen. RESULTATE: Na die 8 en 20 weke dieet, het die intra-peritoneale vet massa, vastende plasma glukose en insulien vlakke in die DIOs aansienlik toegeneem, in vergelyking met hul kontroles. Sitosoliese WK-analise: Die tp85, pp85 en pPKB/Akt vlakke was beduidend hoër in die DIOs in vergelyking met die kontroles, na 8 weke van die dieet. Verder is die pBad en Bax vlakke beduidend verhoog in hierdie diere. Na 20 weke van die dieet, het die pp85, tPKB/Akt en pPKB/Akt vlakke beduidend afgeneem in die DIOs, in vergelyking met die kontroles. Die tBad was beduidend verhoog, terwyl die Bad verhouding van gefosforileerde oor die totale proteïen uitdrukking (P/T)-verhouding) beduidend verminder het in hierdie diere. SS aktiwiteitstoets: SS aktiwiteit is beduidend verminder in die DIOs, teenoor die kontroles, op 20 weke. Mitokondriale EVK WK-analise: Die subeenheid uitdrukking in komplekse I-III en V was nie beduidend verskillend na 8 weke nie. Na 20 weke egter, was die uitdrukking aansienlik laer in komplekse I en II. Interessant genoeg, is die uitdrukking aansienlik verhoog in komplekse III en V. Mitokondriale OXPHOS analise: Die ADP/O verhouding met (1) glutamaat of (2) palmitiel-L-karnitien as substraat, het beduidend afgeneem in die DIOs teen 20 weke. Mitokondriale WK-analise: Die pp85 subeenheid was beduidend verhoog in die kontrole en DIO groepe, blootgestel aan insulien en iskemie, in vergelyking met die onbehandelde kontroles. Die Bcl-2 vlakke was beduidend verminder in die insulien en isgemie DIOs, in vergelyking met onbehandelde DIOs. Die tBad uitdrukking het nie beduidend verskil tussen die insulien en onbehandelde kontroles nie, terwyl die tBad beduidend verhoog was in die isgemie kontroles versus onbehandelde kontroles. Alle beduidende verskille is geneem as p<0.05. GEVOLGTREKKING: Die resultate dui daarop dat die eerste fase van dieet-geïnduseerde obesiteit geassosieer is met kardiale beskerming want `n toename in PI3K/PKB/Akt seintransduksie en 'n afname in apoptotiese merkers is waargeneem. In teenstelling, in die gevorderde stadium van vetsug is daar 'n afname in aktiwiteit in die PI3K/PKB/Akt pad wat verband hou met verhoogde miokardiale apoptose en verminderde mitokondriale funksie en integriteit.

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