’n Ondersoek na twintigste-eeuse musiek vir kinders en die pedagogiese waarde daarvan vir onderrig in Suid-Afrikaanse laerskole

Erasmus, Suzanne (2013-03)

Thesis (MMus)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: When twentieth century music composed specifically for children is discussed, Sergei Prokofiev’s Peter and the Wolf and occasionally Benjamin Britten’s The Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra are the two examples most often mentioned, as if they represent the sum total of works in this genre. It seems then that there is a general lack of awareness of the actual existence of a rich variety of twentieth century music for children. Consequently the conclusion seems justified that most music educators in South African primary schools do not include this music in their repertoire nor has it been specifically recommended for use in the 2005 or 2011 syllabi. The question that prompted the current study is whether this repertoire of contemporary children’s music can be exploited to a much larger extent in South African primary schools than has been the case up until now. In the educational system of 2005, where ‘subjects’ have been replaced by ‘learning areas’, the former subject, Class Music, has been integrated into a new learning area consisting of four components (music, drama, dance and visual arts). However, this more comprehensive learning area has been implemented without actually making provision for more time on the time table than was formerly allocated to Class Music. With the implementation of CAPS in the Foundation Phase (Gr R – 3) in 2011 and in the Intermediate Senior Phase (Gr 4 - 9) in 2013, extra time allocated proves to still be insufficient for continual, thorough teaching of music. Although strong concern had been expressed previously about the fragmentation of subject content and the low status of music education in South African schools, this concern was not really addressed in both the curricula of 2005 and 2011, and subject content within the components is still scaled down to compensate for lack of time. This has also had serious consequences for the training of teachers. Requirements of the curriculum are only given in the form of general guidelines and teachers with no musical education, who have to teach the musical component, have no clearly defined examples to go by. For that reason a catalogue is included in this study by which teachers can gain access to relevant examples of twentieth century music. In the main section of this study music for children is examined in its historical context, it is defined and categorised. Strategies by which composers attempt to find access to a child’s world are also examined. While it may be assumed that children are familiar with the tonal idiom of folk, sacred and popular songs, composers of twentieth century music see themselves challenged to introduce children to a modern musical idiom, not compromising accessibility and a child friendly approach. In addition to the general discussion of the extensive repertoire of twentieth century music for children, four examples are selected to examine more specifically how composers go about when composing such music. These are: Wir bauen eine Stadt (Paul Hindemith), l’Histoire de Babar (Francis Poulenc), Die Weihnachtsgeschichte (Carl Orff) and The little sweep (Benjamin Britten). (Die Weinachtsgeschichte was translated into the Griqua dialect by Prof Hans du Plessis especially for the purpose of this study). The educational potential of twentieth century music for children is vast. Even with minimal teaching time it can be an efficient and time saving medium of tuition that at the same time opens up an exciting contemporary sound world to the young learner.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Wanneer daar oor twintigste-eeuse musiek vir kinders gepraat word, word daar dikwels spontaan na Sergei Prokofjef se Pieter en die Wolf en miskien na Benjamin Britten se The Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra verwys, asof dit die ‘somtotaal’ van die genre uitmaak. Hieruit blyk dit dat daar oor die algemeen ‘n onbewustheid ten opsigte van die beskikbaarheid van ‘n ryke verskeidenheid van werke in hierdie genre bestaan. Dit blyk ook dat die meeste musiekopvoeders in Suid-Afrikaanse laerskole nie hierdie musiek by hul repertorium insluit nie en dat dit ook nie in die sillabusse van 2005 en 2011 spesifiek gepropageer word nie. Die vraag wat aanleiding gee tot die huidige ondersoek is of die pedagogiese waarde van sodanige eietydse musiek nie baie beter in Suid-Afrikaanse skole ontgin kan word as wat tans die geval is nie. Met die 2005-onderwysbedeling waar ‘vakke’ met ‘leerareas’ vervang is, is Klasmusiek in die vier-komponent-leerarea Kuns en Kultuur, met musiek, drama, dans en visuele kuns as spesialis-onderafdelings, geïntegreer. Die Kuns en Kultuur leerarea, wat inhoudsgewys meer omvattend as Klasmusiek was, is sonder ‘n ruimer tydstoekenning ingestel. Met die implementering van KABV in die Grondslagfase (Gr R-3) (2012), en in 2013 by die Intermediêre en Senior Fase (Gr 4 – 9) is die tydstoekenning marginaal verruim, maar steeds onvoldoende vir volgehoue, deeglike onderrig van musiek. Hoewel sterk kommer oor die dilemma van onder meer voortdurende fragmentasie van inhoude asook die lae, kwynende status van musiekopvoeding in Suid-Afrikaanse skole reeds voorheen uitgespreek is, is hierdie kommer nie werklik in die leerplanne van 2005 of 2011 aangespreek nie. In teendeel, die vakinhoud binne die onderskeie komponente is steeds ontoereikend, omdat daar nie genoeg tyd beskikbaar is om werksinhoud deeglik te onderrig nie. Die nuwe bedeling hou verder ook implikasies vir die opleiding van opvoeders in, deurdat vereistes binne die skoolkurrikulum uit breë riglyne ten opsigte van vakinhoud bestaan. Die dilemma van ‘n opvoeder sonder musiekopleiding wat die musiekkomponent moet aanbied, is dus duidelik. Daarom word, as hulpmiddel vir opvoeders, ‘n katalogus by hierdie studie ingesluit om die leemtes in die kurrikulum te help ondervang. In die hoofdeel van hierdie studie word musiek vir kinders in ‘n historiese konteks geplaas, gedefinieer en gekategoriseer. Verder word die middele ondersoek waarmee komponiste van hierdie musiek toegang tot die leefwêreld van die kind probeer verkry. Terwyl aanvaar kan word dat kinders vandag vertroud is met die tonale idioom soos dit in volks-, gewyde of populêre liedere voorkom, kom komponiste van twintigste-eeuse musiek voor die uitdaging te staan om kinders met die moderne musiektaal vertroud te maak sonder om toeganklikheid en kindervriendelikheid prys te gee. Bykomstig tot die algemene bespreking van die omvangryke repertoire van twintigste eeuse musiek vir kinders word vier werke gekies om meer spesifiek te bepaal hoe komponiste te werk gaan wanneer hulle sodanige musiek komponeer, te wete Wir bauen eine Stadt (Paul Hindemith), l’Histoire de Babar (Francis Poulenc), Die Weihnachtsgeschichte (Carl Orff) en The little sweep (Benjamin Britten). (Vir hierdie studie is Die Weihnachtsgeschichte spesiaal deur Prof Hans du Plessis in die Griekwa-dialek vertaal). Twintigste-eeuse musiek vir kinders het veelsydige gebruiksmoontlikhede. Met minimale onderrigtyd kan dit ’n doeltreffende, tydsbesparende medium van onderrig wees, en terselftertyd ’n opwindende, eietydse klankwêreld vir kinders oopsluit.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/80346
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