Developing an electronic resource for Kwaito Music in the Further Education and Training (FET) band (Grades 10 - 12)

Crouch, Lynnette (2013-02-27)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Kwaito music, pronounced either as kwhy-toh, or quite-oh, is an indigenous South African music style which came into existence after the apartheid era was abolished. It was created by the black South African youth at the time when everyone was looking forward to embrace the new South Africa as well as a new music style. The people in the Gauteng ghetto/townships called it KWAITO after the Afrikaans isicamtho (slang) word "kwai" which means "good" or "hot." It also stems from the Afrikaans word 'kwaai" meaning "angry." It can also mean that "the guys are hot." Kwaito is a distinctly home-grown music style, reflecting life in South Africa in the local languages and urban slang. It also has its own style of dancing, speaking, dress code and performing. It includes kwaito genres ranging from guz (meaning to show a sign of affection for your fellow human beings) d'gong (meaning "out of control") and isgubhu "drum" to swaito (an improved term for kwaito). The music is basically dance music and the lyrics are in many cases unsubstantial or even nonsensible for example in the kwaito artist, Mandoza's song, Godoba, the words "Cyborg/Move your skeleton" are being repeated throughout the song. Kwaito is normally not sung, but chanted or spoken rhythmically over the music. Kwaito music has a very high impact on many young people's lives because many young kwaito music artists have become very rich almost overnight. Black youth see the kwaito trend as a way out of their poor existence within the townships/ghettos. This study aims to divert the focus from the kwaito lifestyle (clothing, glamour, materialism) and instead concentrates on the musical aspects thereof. Many classically trained musicians and music teachers frown upon the kwaito music style and regard it as being senseless, unsophisticated and of a lower quality than the popular music that they are used to listening to. As with all other South African music styles such as mbaqanga, kwela, Afrikaans music, township jazz, Kwaito music is introduced into the secondary school subject music curriculum for grades 10- 12. Many schools in South Africa have installed computer laboratories for effective teaching and learning to take place. Schools also have music keyboard laboratories where learners are taught to compose electronic computer music. In view of the fact that almost all learners are computer literate the author has designed this electronic resource with lesson plans for teachers to be used in the secondary school on kwaito music specifically. One lesson plan is an example where kwaito music is notated and used in a four part harmony exercise. This resource is not geared towards the marketing of kwaito as a music style but is geared to make it substantial to be used as lesson material for secondary school subject music. A further aim is to sensitise the more musically educated ear to the musical qualities of the kwaito music style because in many cases it is being ignored by both learners and educators. This study is based on literature studies, empirical study. A website on kwaito music is designed and developed which contains information on the history of kwaito, the cultural democracy of kwaito, various artists, recording and marketing thereof. Sample lesson plans are also developed as part of the resource.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Kwaito musiek, uitgespreek as kwy-toh of kwaai-toh, is 'n inheemse Suid-Afrikaanse musiekstyl wat na die apartheid era tot stand gekom het. Dit was deur die swart Suid Afrikaanse jeug geskep in die tyd toe almal daarna uitgesien het na 'n nuwe Suid Afrika sowel as 'n nuwe musiekstyl. Mense in die agter-geblewe gemeenskappe (ghettos) van Gauteng het hierdie musiekstyl KWAITO genoem afgelei van die Afrikaans "isicamtho" (gemengde tale) woord 'kwai' wat 'goed' of 'warm' beteken. Dit hou ook verband met die Afrikaanse woord 'kwaai' wat 'kwaad' beteken. Daar word ook geinsinueer dat 'die ouens goed of warm voorkom.' Kwaito is 'n kenmerkende plaaslike musiekstyl wat die alledaagse bestaanslewe in Suid Afrika deur middel van plaaslike tale en stedelike spreektale weerspieel. Dit het sy eie dansstyl, manier van praat, klere-modes en verhoog optredes. Dit sluit kwaito style soos Guz (wat beteken om vir jou medemens om te gee), D'gong (om buite beheer te wees),isgubhu (trom) en Swaito ('n verbeterde vorm van kwaito) in. Die musiek is basies dansmusiek en die lirieke is baie keer oppervlakkig of dit maak in sommige gevalle selfs nie sin nie soos byvoorbeeld in die kwaito kunstenaar, Mandoza, se lied Godoba, word die woorde 'Cyborg, beweeg jou geraamte' aanhoudend herhaal. Kwaito word gewoonlik nie gesing nie, maar ge'rap' wat beteken dat die woorde ritmies met klankbegeleiding gese word. Kwaito het 'n baie groot invloed op baie jongmense se lewens aangesien heelwat van die jong kwaito kunstenaars feitlik oornag baie beroemd en skatryk geword het e Die jeug dit as 'n uitweg beskou om hulself uit hul ellende en armoede te verhef Die doel van hierdie studie is om die fokus vanaf die kwaito leefstyl (kleredrag, glans en materialisme) te skuif en liewer op die musikale aspekte daarvan te konsentreer. Heelwat musikante en musiek onderwysers wat in klassieke musiek geskool is,stel nie in hierdie musiekstyl belang nie omdat hulle dit as sinneloos, ongesofistikeerd en van 'n lae gehalte as die bekende populere musiek beskou. Kwaito musiek is net soos aile ander Suid- Afrikaanse musiekstyle soos mbaqanga, kwela, Afrikaanse musiek, Afrika jazz by die vakmusiek leerplan vir sekondere skole, ingesluit vir grade 10- 12. Heelwat skole het rekenaar laboratoriums geinstalleer om effektiewe onderrig en leer te verskaf. Verskeie skole het selfs musiek klawerbord laboratoriums waar leerders geleer word om elektroniese rekenaarmusiek te komponeer. Weens die feit dat amper aile leerders rekenaar geletterd is, het die skrywer hierdie elektroniese kwaito hulpbron met lesplanne vir sekondere skool musiekonderwysers ontwikkel. Een lesplan is 'n voorbeeld waar kwaito musiek genoteer is en in 'n vierstemmige harmonie oefening gebruik word. Hierdie hulpbron is geensins daarop gemik om kwaito as 'n musiekstyl te bemark nie, maar om dit substantief te maak as lesmateriaal vir sekondere skool gebruik. 'n Verdere doel is om die musikale oor vir kwaito klank sensitief te maak aangesien dit baie kere deur beide leerkragte en leerders geignoreer word. Hierdie studie is gebasseer op literatuurstudies en empiriese studie. 'n Webblad is ontwikkel wat inligting oor die geskiedenis van kwaito, die kulturele demokrasie van kwaito, verskeie kunstenaars, asook die klankopnames en bemarking daarvan. Lesplanvoorbeelde is ook ontwikkel as deel van die hulpbron.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/80337
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