God en hoop in Jesaja 5:1-7 aan die hand van parallelismes in die boek Jesaja

Daniels, Andries (2013-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This dissertation is an attempt to address the problem of the relationship between Yahweh and Hope in Isaiah 5:1-7 in the light of parallelism in the book Isaiah. It is an attempt to prove that our hypothesis, that hope in the book Isaiah can be explained theologically in a special manner by means of parallelism (synonymous, antithetical and synthetical); that hope can also not only theologically be understood in concordance (synonymous and synthetical), but also in contradiction (antithetical); that Isaiah 5:1-7 can be used as a good example of antithetical parallelism and that the social, cultural and ideological texture give cause to the different accents of the theological understanding of hope in Isaiah. For this study we used the socio-rhetorical approach of Vernon Robbins. In Chapter 1 we look more closely at the socio-rhetorical approach, we look for possible flaws and make some suggestions. For the clarification of the concepts "hope" and "parallelism" we focus on the meaning of these concepts as included in the hypothesis of this dissertation. An overview of the research of Isaiah 5:1-7 is given and how the history of interpretation has been characterised by three approaches, namely the historical-critical, literary and theological approaches. By the use of the socio-rhetorical approach we attempt to study more fully "God and Hope in Isaiah 5:1-7 in the light of parallelism in the book Isaiah". In Chapter 2 we are focusing on the inner texture of Isaiah 5:1-7. We are looking to the following: - The repetitive texture and pattern; we are looking for the occurrence of words and phrases more than once in a unit. - The progressive texture and pattern; there is a progressive building up from verse 1 to verse 7 in words and phrases. - The narrational texture and pattern; Isaiah 5:1-7 has been characterised by two structural forms, namely a love song and a juridical case. - The opening-middle-closing texture and pattern; the exposition looks as follows: - opening: vv. 1-2d; - middle: vv. 2e-4; - closing: vv. 5-7. - The argumentative texture and pattern; Yahweh is building up an argument. He is using the example of a vineyard and court terms to explain and build up His case. - The sensory-aesthetic texture and pattern; the relationship between Yahweh and his people become sour and we are talking of contradicting emotions and acts, namely excitement and disappointment, pressing (of the grapes) and judgement. In Chapter 3 we are focussing on the intertexture of Isaiah 5:1-7 and its connection with hope. We are looking to the dating of Isaiah 5:1-7. The possible intertextual connections between Isaiah 5:1-7 and the other texts in Isaiah are "recitation", "recontextualization" and "thematic elaboration". Considering that "parallelism" is part of the theme of this dissertation, we are taking antithetical parallelism as point of departure to concentrate on four focus texts, namely Isaiah 5:1-7 (main focus texts), Isaiah 27:2-6, Isaiah 40:27-31 and Isaiah 59:1-21. In terms of parallelism and dating we typify the four texts as follows: - Isaiah 5:1-7: antithetical parallelism; late post-exilic. - Isaiah 27:2-6: late pre-exilic. - Isaiah 40:27-31: antithetical parallelism; exilic. - Isaiah 59:1-21: antithetical parallelism; post-exilic. that play a role in how hope is understood are: "viticulture", "dwellers in Jerusalem", "men of Judah", "house of Israel", "Jacob/Israel" and "Zion". In Chapter 5 we are focussing on the ideological and sacred texture of Isaiah 5:1-7 and its connection with hope. The following issues cast light on how hope must be understood in terms of the ideological texture, namely "the conflict between communities", "the ideological conflict concerning Zion theology", "the people circumstances in the exile" and "class conflict". In terms of the theme, "God and Hope in Isaiah 5:1-7 in the light of parallelism in the book Isaiah", the role of Yahweh is crucial in in the way hope must be understood. In the sacred texture of Isaiah 5:1-7 Yahweh plays the following roles: "Gardener-Viticulturist", "Creator", "King", "Judge", "Warrior" and "Husband". In Chapter 6 we summarise our study and also give a conclusion to the study, the contribution of the dissertation to the field of study in comparison with existing research and suggestions with reference to further research. Therefore, the answer on the question, "How can hope been theologically understood in the book Isaiah in consideration of the literary and historical textures of Isaiah 5:1-7?" is as follows: Hope with parallelisms as point of departure in the book of Isaiah can be theologically understand on how Isaiah 5:1-7 is socio-rhetorically been investigated.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie proefskrif ondersoek die vraagstuk rondom die verhouding tussen God en Hoop in Jesaja 5:1-7 aan die hand van parallelismes in die boek Jesaja. Daar word gepoog om die hipotese te bewys, dat "hoop" in die boek Jesaja op 'n besondere manier by wyse van parallelismes (sinonimiese, antitetiese en sintetiese) teologies verduidelik word; dat hoop teologies nie net in ooreenstemming (sinonimiese en sintetiese parallelisme) nie, maar ook in teenstelling (antitetiese parallelisme) verstaan kan word; dat Jesaja 5:1-7 as 'n goeie voorbeeld van antitetiese parallelismes gebruik kan word; dat die sosiale, kulturele en ideologiese verband aanleiding tot die verskillende aksente binne die teologiese verstaan van hoop in Jesaja gee. Vir hierdie ondersoek word Vernon Robbins se sosio-retoriese benadering gebruik. In hoofstuk 1 word die sosio-retoriese benadering van nader bekyk en word moontlike leemtes aangespreek en sekere voorstelle word gemaak. Ter verheldering van die begrippe "hoop" en "parallelisme" word daar gefokus op die betekenis van die begrippe soos in die hipotese van die proefskrif vervat. Daar word 'n oorsig van die navorsing van Jesaja 5:1-7 gegee en hoe die geskiedenis van interpretasie deur drie benaderings, te wete die histories-kritiese, die literêre en die teologiese benaderings, gekenmerk was. Deur die gebruik van die sosio-retoriese benadering word gepoog om, "God en Hoop in Jesaja 5:1-7 aan die hand van parallelismes in die boek Jesaja", meer volledig te bestudeer. In Hoofstuk 2 word daar na die intratekstuele verband van Jesaja 5:1-7 gekyk. Daar word op die volgende gelet: - Die herhalende verband en patroon; hoe woorde en frases herhaal word. - Die progressiewe verband en patroon; daar is 'n progressiewe opbou vanaf vers 1 tot vers 7 deur woorde en frases. - Die verhalende verband en patroon; Jesaja 5:1-7 het twee strukturele kenmerke wat met 'n liefdeslied en 'n regsaak te make het. - Die oop-middel-sluit verband en patroon; dit kan soos volg uiteengesit word: - oop: vv. 1-2d; - middel: vv. 2e-4; - sluit: vv. 5-7. - Die redenerende verband en patroon; Jahwe is besig om 'n argument op te bou en Hy gebruik die voorbeeld van die wingerd en hofterme om sy saak te verduidelik en op te bou. - Die sensoriese verband en patroon; hier het die verhouding tussen Jahwe en die volk versuur en word van kontrasterende emosies en handeling gepraat, naamlik: opgewondenheid en teleurstelling, oes en oordeel. In Hoofstuk 3 word op die intertekstuele verband van Jesaja 5:1-7 gefokus en die samehang met hoop. Daar word na die datering van Jesaja 5:1-7 gekyk. Die moontlike intertekstuele verbande tussen Jesaja 5:1-7 en sy intertekste in die boek Jesaja is dié van: "herhaling", "tematiese uitbreiding" en "rekontekstualisering". Aangesien daar op parallelisme gefokus word met antitetiese parallelisme as die uitgangspunt, word daar 4 fokustekste behandel, naamlik: Jesaja 5:1-7 (hooffokusteks), Jesaja 27:2-6, Jesaja 40:27-31 en Jesaja 59:1-21. In terme van parallelismes en datering word dit soos volg getipeer: - Jesaja 5:1-7: antitetiese parallelisme, laat post-eksilies. - Jesaja 27:2-6: laat pre-eksilies. - Jesaja 40:27-31: antitetiese parallelisme, eksilies. - Jesaja 59:1-21: antitetiese parallelisme, post-eksilies. Die rede waarom 27:2-6 ook behandel word, is dat dit kanonies as die tweede wingerdlied bekend staan. In Hoofstuk 4 word daar op die sosiale en kulturele verband van Jesaja 5:1-7 en sy intertekste en die verband met hoop gefokus. Ten opsigte van die sosiale en kulturele omstandighede is die godsdienstige reaksies oorwegend "revolusionist" en die retoriek oorwegend "dominant" en "alternative". Die sosiale en kulturele begrippe wat 'n rol speel in hoe hoop verstaan word, is: "wingerdbou", "inwoners van Jerusalem", "manne van Juda", "huis van Israel", "Jakob/Israel" en "Sion". In Hoofstuk 5 word daar op die ideologiese en teologiese verband van Jesaja 5:1-7 en die verband met hoop gefokus. Die volgende kwessies werp lig op hoe hoop in terme van die ideologiese verband verstaan word, naamlik: "die konflik tussen gemeenskappe", "ideologiese konflik betreffende die Sionsteologie", "die volk se omstandighede in ballingskap" en "klassekonflik". In terme van die tema, "God en Hoop in Jesaja 5:1-7 aan die hand van parallelismes in die boek Jesaja", is die rol van Jahwe van deurslaggewende belang in hoe hoop verstaan word. In die teologiese verband van Jesaja 5:1-7 vertolk Jahwe die volgende rolle: "Tuinier-Wingerdboer", "Skepper", "Koning", "Regter", "Kryger" en "Man". In Hoofstuk 6 word 'n opsomming gegee, asook 'n gevolgtrekking van die studie, die bydrae van die proefskif tot navorsing in vergelyking met bestaande navorsing en voorstelle met betrekking tot verdere navorsing. Dus, die antwoord op die vraag: "Hoe word "hoop" teologies in die boek Jesaja verstaan met inagneming van die literêre en historiese verbande van Jesaja 5:1-7?" is soos volg: The reason for taking 27:2-6 as one of the focus texts is that it is canonically speaking known as the second love song. In Chapter 4 we are focussing on the social and cultural texture of Isaiah 5:1-7 and its intertexts and its connection with hope. With regard to the social and cultural circumstances the predominant religious reaction is "revolutionist" and the rhetoric "dominant" and "counterculture" or "alternative". The social and cultural concepts Hoop, met parallelismes in die boek Jesaja as uitgangspunt, word teologies verstaan deur Jesaja 5:1-7 sosio-retories na te vors.

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