Cellphone banking adoption and continuance of use in an internet banking context : a study of consumers'cross-channel cognitive evaluations

Nel, Jacques (2013-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The convergence of the Internet, wireless technologies, and mobile devices has led to the development of a new paradigm of transacting, namely, mobile commerce. Because banking activities are easily digitised and automated, banks have seized the mobile transacting opportunity and have developed cellphone banking applications that allow more flexibility for bank clients than internet banking in terms of anywhere, anytime banking. For banks, considering the benefits associated with multi-channel customers, the ideal situation would be that bank clients using internet banking also adopt and continue to use cellphone banking in the future. Therefore, to assist marketing managers with the development of marketing strategies to enhance the concurrent use of internet and cellphone banking, this study investigates the influence of internet banking cognitive evaluations on the perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use of cellphone banking in the formation of the intention to use and the continuance of use intention of cellphone banking. A literature review revealed that two consumer behaviour theories can guide crosschannel cognitive evaluations between the internet banking and cellphone banking channel namely, expectation-transfer theory and status quo bias theory. In the context of this study, expectation-transfer theory can explain cross-channel evaluative synergies from the internet banking channel to the cellphone banking channel, as well as dissynergies; whilst status quo bias underpins only evaluative dissynergies. These theories point to internet banking beliefs that could influence the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of cellphone banking. Based on the literature review, a conceptual model was developed of the formation of intention to use and the continuance of use intention of cellphone banking in an internet banking context. To assess the validity of the model empirically, data were collected from 678 users of only internet banking and 491 users of both internet and cellphone banking. The data collected in the empirical phase of the study were analysed using the structural equations modelling (SEM) software program AMOS 20.0. The results revealed that the perceived convenience and time saving of internet banking positively influence the perceived usefulness of cellphone banking for the users of both internet and cellphone banking. On the other hand, only the perceived convenience of internet banking influenced the cellphone banking usefulness perceptions of the users of only internet banking. Furthermore, internet banking trust and risk perceptions only influenced the cellphone banking usefulness perceptions of the users of only internet banking. Expectation-transfer in both cohorts was also confirmed between the ease of use perceptions of internet banking and the perceived ease of use of cellphone banking. The results also confirmed that internet banking facilitating conditions negatively influence the perceived usefulness of cellphone banking (evidence of status quo bias). The theoretical contribution of the study is apparent at three different levels. Firstly, the conceptual model of cross-channel cognitive evaluations extends the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) with beliefs of a related technology as the determinants of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Secondly, the study provides more insights into how cross-channel cognitive evaluations influence the formation of intention to use and the continuance of use intention of cellphone banking. And lastly, the study identifies additional sources of expectation-transfer and status-quo bias in the multichannel marketing context. The study provides valuable insights into internet – cellphone banking multi-channel consumer behaviour that should be considered by managers in the development of cellphone banking marketing strategies. To facilitate the conversion from internet banking to the concurrent usage of internet and cellphone banking, managers of cellphone banking services must ensure that the internet banking service is reliable and risk free. Equally important, cellphone banking must be marketed as a complementary channel to internet banking. In other words, the usefulness of cellphone banking must be emphasised in situations when the bank client is not near a computer to do internet banking or when he/she does not have the time or money to use a computer for internet banking. And lastly, to enhance the adoption of cellphone banking marketing communications must emphasise the similarities between internet and cellphone banking so that expectation-transfer between the two channels can influence behavioural intentions to adopt cellphone banking. Based on the results of the study, several recommendations can be made to enhance the continuance of use of cellphone banking. Firstly, marketing communications must remind the concurrent users of internet and cellphone banking of why they are using cellphone banking. The most important reason to remind them of is the usefulness of cellphone banking in situations where there is a lack of internet banking facilitating conditions. Marketing managers should also take note that cellphone banking users do not draw on internet banking trust and risk perceptions to form perceptions of the usefulness of cellphone banking. It may be that they only consider trust and risk perceptions directly related to cellphone banking. This conclusion emphasises the importance of cellphone banking trust and risk perceptions in cellphone banking continuance of use behaviour. Finally, the study quantified the influence of internet banking cognitive evaluations on the formation of intention to use and the continuance of use intention of cellphone banking. Considering this result, the study provides valuable information for marketing managers of cellphone services. The methodology employed can also guide future studies exploring cross-channel evaluations in a multi-channel marketing context.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die sameloop van maklike toegang tot die Internet, die ontwikkeling van draadlose tegnologieë en die beskikbaarheid van mobiele toestelle het gelei tot ʼn nuwe transaksieparadigma, naamlik mobiele handel. Aangesien bankaktiwiteite maklik digitiseer en outomatiseer, het banke die mobiele verrigtingsgeleentheid aangegryp en selfoonbankaanwendings ontwikkel wat vir bankkliënte meer buigsaamheid as internetbankdienste inhou wat ‘enige plek, enige tyd’ bankwese betref. Gegewe die voordele van multikanaal gebruik, is die ideaal vir banke dat kliënte wat internetbankdienste gebruik, ook selfoonbankdienste aanvaar en in die toekoms bly gebruik. Met die oog daarop om bemarkingsbestuurders by te staan in die ontwikkeling van bemarkingstrategieë om die gelyktydige gebruik van internet- en selfoonbankdienste te bevorder, ondersoek hierdie studie die invloed van kognitiewe evaluerings oor internetbankwese op die waargenome nuttigheid en waargenome maklike gebruik van selfoonbankdienste in die vorming van die gebruiksvoorneme en voortgesette gebruiksvoorneme ten opsigte van selfoonbankdienste. ʼn Literatuuroorsig het getoon dat twee verbruikersgedragsteorieë kruiskanaal kognitiewe evaluerings tussen die internetbankkanaal en selfoonbankkanaal kan voorlig, naamlik, Verwagtingsoordragteorie (“Expectation-transfer Theory”) en Status Quo Vooroordeel Teorie (“Status Quo Bias Theory”). In die konteks van hierdie studie kan Verwagtingsoordragteorie kruiskanaalevalueringsinergieë en dissinergieë van die internetbankkanaal na die selfoonbankkanaal toe verduidelik, terwyl Status Quo Vooroordeel Teorie slegs evaluerende dissinergieë stut. Hierdie teorieë belig internetbankoortuigings wat die waargenome nuttigheid en waargenome maklike gebruik van selfoonbankdienste kan beïnvloed. ʼn Konseptuele model van die vorming van die gebruiksvoorneme en voortgesette gebruiksvoorneme van selfoonbankdienste in ʼn internetbankkonteks is op grond van die literatuuroorsig ontwikkel. Met die oog daarop om die geldigheid van die model empiries te bepaal, is data van 678 gebruikers van slegs internet bankdienste en 491 gebruikers van internet sowel as selfoonbankdienste ingesamel. Die data wat tydens die empiriese fase van die studie ingesamel is, is met behulp van die strukturele vergelykingsmodelleringsagtewareprogram (“structural equations modelling” (SEM)) AMOS 20.0 analiseer. Volgens die resultate het die waargenome gerieflikheid en tydbesparing van internetbankwese die waargenome nuttigheid van selfoonbankdienste positief beïnvloed by gebruikers van beide internet en selfoonbankdienste. Hierteenoor het slegs die waargenome gerieflikheid van internetbankdienste die selfoonbankdiensnuttigheidswaarnemings van gebruikers van slegs internetbankdienste beïnvloed. Verder het internetbankdiensvertroue en risikowaarnemings slegs die selfoonbankdiensnuttigheid van die gebruikers van slegs internetbankdienste beïnvloed. Verwagtingsoordrag in beide kohorte is ook bevestig tussen die maklike gebruik persepsies van internetbankdienste en die waargenome maklike gebruik van selfoonbankdienste. Die resultate bevestig ook dat internetbankfasiliteringsomstandighede die waargenome nuttigheid van selfoonbankdienste negatief beïnvloed (manifestering van status quo vooroordeel). Die teoretiese bydrae van die studie blyk op drie vlakke. Eerstens brei die konseptuele model van kruiskanaal kognitiewe evaluerings die Tegnologie Aanvaardingsmodel (“Technology Acceptance Model” (TAM)) uit ten opsigte van oortuigings oor ʼn verwante tegnologie as die bepalers van waargenome nuttigheid en waargenome maklike gebruik. Die studie bied tweedens ook insigte in hoe kruiskanaal kognitiewe evaluerings die vorming van gebruiksvoorneme en voortgesette gebruiksvoorneme van selfoonbankdienste beïnvloed. Die studie identifiseer laastens ook addisionele verwagtingsoordrag- en status quo vooroordeel bronne in die multikanaalbemarkingskonteks. Die studie bied waardevolle insig oor internet – selfoonbankmultikanaal-verbruikersgedrag wat bestuurders in die ontwikkeling van selfoonbank-diensbemarkingstrategieë moet oorweeg. Om die oorskakeling van internetbankdienste na die gelyktydige gebruik van internet en selfoonbankdienste te fasiliteer, moet bestuurders van selfoonbankdienste verseker dat internetbankdienste betroubaar en risikovry is. Wat net so belangrik is, is dat selfoonbankwese as ʼn komplementêre kanaal tot internet bankwese bemark moet word. Die nuttigheid van selfoonbankwese moet, met ander woorde, beklemtoon word in situasies waar die kliënt nie naby ʼn rekenaar is vir internetbankgebruik nie of wanneer hy/sy nie die geld of tyd het om ʼn rekenaar vir internetbankdienste te gebruik nie. Laastens, om die aanvaarding van selfoonbankwese te versterk, moet bemarkingskommunikasiemateriaal die ooreenkomste tussen internet en selfoonbankwese op so ʼn wyse beklemtoon dat verwagtingsoordrag tussen die twee kanale gedragsvoornemens om selfoonbankdienste te aanvaar, beïnvloed. Verskeie aanbevelings spruit voort uit die resultate oor hoe die voortgesette gebruik van selfoonbankdienste verhoog kan word. Eerstens moet bemarkingskommunikasieboodskappe die gelyktydige gebruikers van internet en selfoonbankwese herinner waarom hulle selfoonbankdienste gebruik. Die belangrikste rede in hierdie verband is die nuttigheid van selfoonbankwese in situasies waar internetbankfasiliteringsomstandighede afwesig is. Bemarkingsbestuurders moet ook in ag neem dat selfoonbankgebruikers nie op internetbankvertroue en risikowaarnemings steun om persepsies oor die nuttigheid van selfoonbankwese te vorm nie. Hulle oorweeg waarskynlik net vertroue en risikopersepsies wat direk met selfoonbankdienste verband hou. Hierdie gevolgtrekking beklemtoon die belangrikheid van vertroue in selfoonbankdienste en riskowaarnemings in voortgesette selfoonbankgebruikgedrag. Laastens, die studie kwantifiseer die invloed van kognitiewe evaluering oor internetbankwese in die vorming van selfoonbankwese gebruiksvoorneme en voortgesette gebruiksvoorneme. Veral in die lig van hierdie resultaat bied die studie waardevolle inligting vir selfoonbankdiensbemarkingsbestuurders. Die metodes wat gebruik is, kan ook verdere studies waarin kruiskanaalevaluerings in ʼn multikanaal-bemarkingskonteks ondersoek word, rig.

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