A two-dimensional mathematical model investigation of the hydrodynamics and sediment transport of Saldanha Bay and Langebaan Lagoon

Wiese, Michael-John Barnardo (2013-03)

Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Since the construction of the causeway and the jetty during the early 1970’s in Saldanha Bay, various alterations to the coastline in the area of the Langebaan Lagoon mouth were observed. These alterations include the erosion of Langebaan Beach located near the town of Langebaan. An investigation was undertaken to identify the possible impact these structures had on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport of the Saldanha Bay and Langebaan Lagoon systems, focusing on the entrance to the Langebaan Lagoon. A two-dimensional numerical model was implemented for this investigation. The outdated information available for the generation of a bathymetry, which indicated the conditions prior to the erosion of Langebaan Beach, complicated the calibration process. However, calibration of the numerical model was acceptable. Due to the bathymetry not providing an indication on the current situation at the Langebaan Lagoon mouth, the results from the numerical model were approached with caution, providing an overview of the hydrodynamics present in Saldanha Bay and Langebaan Lagoon and would be able to broaden the understanding of the impact the causeway and jetty had on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport of Saldanha Bay and Langebaan Lagoon. Results provided by the sediment transport model only provide an indication on the effect tidal variations and wind forcing have on the bay and lagoon and not realistic total sediment transport rates due to the omission of wave action during the modelling process. Results from the numerical model, based on tidal oscillations and wind forcing only, have indicated that no major impact on the hydrodynamics and sediment transport were experienced due to the construction of the causeway and the jetty. During the investigation of the impact of various extreme water level and extreme wind conditions, it has been observed that a 1 in 100 year wind velocity across the longest fetch towards Langebaan Beach resulted in the greatest velocities prior to the construction of the causeway and the jetty, and after the construction of the causeway and the jetty tidal storms, or storm surge, generated the greatest velocities and thus the most sediment transport in the main channels of the mouth of the Langebaan Lagoon. From this investigation it was recommended that future studies would require an updated survey of the area, to ensure accurate modelling of the conditions as experienced during field surveys. Further recommendations on the investigation of sediment transport were the inclusion of wave action to provide realistic results. Wave action is a fundamental part of sediment transport along the coastline.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Sedert die konstruksie van die breekwater en die kaai gedurende die vroeg 1970’s in Saldanhbaai, is verskeie veranderings aan die kuslyn in die gebied van die Langebaan strandmeer mond waargeneem. Hierdie veranderinge sluit in die erodering van Langebaan Strand, geleë naby die dorp van Langebaan. 'n Ondersoek is onderneem om die moontlike impak van die bogenoemde strukture op die hidrodinamika en sedimentvervoer van die Saldanhabaai en die Langebaan strandmeer stelsels, veral die strandmeer se kanale, met die fokus op die ingang na die Langebaan strandmeer te ondersoek. 'n Twee-dimensionele numeriese model is gebruik vir hierdie ondersoek. Die verouderde inligting van die seebodem wat beskikbaar was vir die opwekking van die numeriese model het die kalibrasieproses bemoeilik. Alhoewel hierdie proses bemoeilik is kon ‘n aanvaarbare kalibrasie bereik word. Aangesien die gemodelleerde area en die werklike area nie ooreengestem het nie is resultate van die numeriese model omsigtig benader en die resultate geskik gevind om die kennis oor die moontlike impak wat die breekwater en die kaai op die hidrodinamika en sedimentvervoer van Saldanhabaai en die Langebaan strandmeer het, te verbreed. Resultate uit die sedimentvervoer model verskaf slegs ‘n aanduiding van die sedimentvervoer wat deur gety veranderings en wind gegenereer word. Werklike sediment vervoer sal die effect van golfaksie ook in ag moet neem, wat in hierdie studie uitgesluit is. Golfaksie is van kardinale belang by sediment vervoer langs ‘n kuslyn. Resultate van die numeriese model, gebaseer op gety en wind alleen, het aangedui dat geen groot impak op die hidrodinamika en sedimentvervoer as gevolg van die konstruksie van die breekwater en die kaai in Saldanhabaai ervaar word nie. Gedurende die ondersoek van die impak van verskeie ekstreme watervlak en uiterste windtoestande, is dit opgemerk dat 'n 1 in 100 jaar windsnelheid oor die langste stryklengte na Langebaan Strand gelei het tot die grootste vloei snelhede in die hoofkanale voor die konstruksie van die breekwater en die kaai. Na die konstruksie van die breekwater en die kaai is gevind dat gety storms die grootste snelhede en dus ook die meeste sedimentvervoer gegenereer het by Langebaan Strand. Uit hierdie ondersoek is dit aanbeveel dat toekomstige studies opgedateerde opmetings van die gebied moet uitvoer wat akkurate modellering, gebaseer op die toestande soos in die veld, sal verseker. Verdere aanbevelings oor die ondersoek van sediment vervoer is die modellering van .golfaksie wat van kardinale belang is in sediment vervoer langs ‘n kuslyn en dus meer realistiese resultate sal lewer.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/80253
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