The role of arthropods in the dispersal of trunk disease pathogens associated with Petri disease and Esca

Moyo, Providence (2013-03)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Petri disease and esca are devastating grapevine trunk diseases and compromise the sustainability of viticulture world-wide. Despite being extensively studied, knowledge of inoculum sources and mechanisms of spread of the causal pathogens is limited. Arthropods have been suspected to play a role in the spread of Petri disease and esca pathogens. However, little information is known about the extent to which arthropods are associated with these pathogens. This study aimed to determine whether arthropods occurring within or on declining grapevines, are associated with trunk disease pathogens and to identify arthropods associated with pruning wounds. The potential of selected arthropods to act as vectors of trunk disease pathogens was also investigated. Two vineyards exhibiting grapevine trunk disease infections were sampled weekly for two years for collection of arthropods. Arthropods were collected using pruning wound traps, visual searches as well as trunk and cordon traps. Fungal spores from surfaces of arthropods were collected in water. Samples were subjected to nested PCR using primers Pm1/Pm2 and Pch1/Pch2 to verify the presence of Phaeoacremonium spp. and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, respectively. Water samples were also cultured and grapevine trunk disease pathogens obtained were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene or the partial beta-tubulin gene. A total of 10 875 arthropod individuals, belonging to more than 31 families, were collected from declining grapevines. The most abundant arthropods included millipedes, ants, spiders and beetles. Portuguese millipedes and cocktail ants were associated with fresh grapevine pruning wounds. Thirty-three percent of the 5677 water samples analysed, contained propagules of pathogens associated with Petri disease and esca. Of these, 37 % were recovered from millipedes, 22 % from cocktail ants, 15 % from spiders and 10 % from beetles. All the major groups of grapevine trunk diseases were detected on the arthropods. Phaeoacremonium species were detected in 1242 samples while Phaeomoniella chlamydospora was identified from 855 samples. Other fungi isolated included members of the Botryosphaeriaceae, Diatrypaceae and Diaporthales. The potential of grapevine sap as a food source for Portuguese millipedes and cocktail ants was investigated, in vitro. Millipede individuals were offered a choice between water and grapevine sap while ants in nests were presented with grapevine sap, tuna and water and monitored for ingestion of sap. Both taxa preferred grapevine sap over the other food items, indicating close association with pruning wounds. Subsequently, the ability of both taxa to transmit a DsRed-transformed Phaeomoniella chlamydospora isolate to fresh pruning wounds of canes in polystyrene strips, floating in water, and potted vines was tested. Arthropods were exposed to the fungus for 24 hours and transferred to the base of the plants and canes and were removed after three days. Isolations after a month revealed that millipedes and ants were capable of transmitting the fungus onto wounds and cause infection. Millipede faecal pellets were also evaluated as potential sources of inoculum. Millipedes were fed on Phaeomoniella chlamydospora for 24 hours, surface sterilised and allowed to defaecate in sterile Petri dishes overnight. Faecal material was collected, macerated in water and plated onto potato dextrose agar. Propagules of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora survived passage through the gut of millipedes and were passed out in a viable state to form colonies of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. This study concludes that a wide variety of arthropods can be a source of inoculum of trunk diseases in vineyards. The results of the dissemination trial provides evidence that millipedes and ants are able to disseminate and infect vines with Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. It is therefore, highly likely that other grapevine trunk disease pathogens are transmitted in the same manner. This knowledge highlights the need for control of certain arthropods to be taken into consideration when managing grapevine trunk disease pathogens.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Petri siekte en esca is verwoestende wingerd stamsiektes en verhinder die volhoubaarheid van wingerdproduksie wêreldwyd. Hierdie siektes is al intensief bestudeer, maar kennis rakende die inokulum bronne en meganismes van verspreiding van die veroorsakende patogene is beperk. Arthropoda is al vermoed om ‘n rol te speel in die verspreiding van Petri siekte en esca patogene, maar weinig informasie is bekend oor die mate waartoe arthropoda geassosieer is met die patogene. Hierdie studie het ten doel gestel om die arthropoda wat op of in wingerdstokke wat terugsterf voorkom te identifiseer en te bepaal watter van die arthropoda geassosieer is met stamsiekte patogene. Daar is ook ten doel gestel om die arthropoda wat geassosieer is met vars snoeiwonde te identifiseer en ook die moontlike vektor status van die stamsiekte patogene deur arthropoda. Arthropoda is weekliks vir twee jaar gekollekteer vanaf twee wingerde met stamsiekte infeksies. Snoeiwond lokvalle, visuele soektogte en stam- en kordon lokvalle was gebruik om arthropoda te vang. Swamspore van die oppervlak van die arthropoda is afgewas met water. Van hierdie water monsters is gebruik om dubbelvoudige polimerase ketting reaksies (PKR) te doen met die inleiers Pm1/Pm2 en Pch1/Pch2 om vir die teenwoordigheid van Phaeoacremonium spp. en Phaeomoniella chlamydospora onderskeidelik te toets. Die oorblywende water monster is gekweek op medium om die swamme teenwoordig te bepaal. Die wingerd stamsiekte patogene is verder geidentifiseer deur die DNS volgordes te bepaal van die interne getranskribeerde spasies 1 en 2 en die 5.8S rRNS geen of ‘n gedeelte van die beta-tubulien geen. In totaal is 10 875 arthropoda, wat behoort tot 31 families, gekollekteer vanaf wingerde wat terugsterf. Die mees algemene arthropoda was duisendpote, miere, spinnekoppe en kewers. Die Portugese duisendpote en die wipstert mier is geassosieer met vars wingerd snoeiwonde. Van die 5677 water monsters wat geanaliseer is, het 33% propagules van die Petri siekte of esca patogene gehad. Van hierdie was 37 % afkomstig vanaf duisendpote, 22 % van wipstert miere, 15 % van spinnekoppe en 10 % van kewers. Al die hoofgroepe van wingerd stampatogene is opgespoor op die arthropoda. Phaeoacremonium species is opgespoor in 1242 monsters en Phaeomoniella chlamydospora is gevind in 855 monsters. Ander swamme wat ook geisoleer is sluit lede van die Botryosphaeriaceae, Diatrypaceae en Diaporthales in. Die potensiaal van wingerdsap as ‘n bron van voedsel vir Portugese duisendpote en wipstert miere is in vitro ondersoek. Duisendpoot invidue is ‘n keuse gegee tussen water en wingerd sap terwyl mierneste ‘n keuse gehad het tussen water, wingerd sap en tuna. Die duisendpote en miere is gemonitor vir die inname van wingerdsap in die teenwoordigheid van die ander bronne. Beide die duisendpote en miere het wingerdsap verkies wat aandui dat hulle ‘n noue assosiasie met wingerd snoeiwonde het. Vervolgens is beide taksons getoets vir hul vermoë om ‘n DsRooi-getransformeerde Phaeomoniella chlamydospora isolaat te vektor na vars snoeiwonde op lote gemonteer op polistireen stroke wat in water dryf en op wingerd plante in potte. Die duisendpote en miere is blootgestel aan die swam vir 24 uur en oorgedra na die basis van die plante en lote en is weer verwyder na drie dae. Na ‘n maand is isolasies gedoen wat gewys het dat die duisendpote en miere die swam suksesvol kon oordra na die snoeiwonde en infeksie veroorsaak. Duisendpoot uitwerpsels is geëvalueer vir die potensiaal as inokulum bron. Duisendpote het gevoed op Phaeomoniella chlamydospora vir 24 uur, daarna oppervlakkig gesteriliseer en toegelaat om oornag uitwerpsels te maak in steriele Petri bakkies. Uitwerpsels was gekollekteer, fyngemaak in water en op aartappel dekstrose agar uitgeplaat. Propagules van Phaeomoniella chlamydospora het die verteringskanaal van die duisendpote oorleef en het tipiese kolonies op die agar gevorm. Hierdie studie het vasgestel dat ‘n verskeidenheid van arthropoda ‘n bron van inokulum van stamsiektes in wingerd kan wees. Die resultate van die vektor proewe het gewys dat duisendpote en miere die vermoë het om Phaeomoniella chlamydospora te versprei na snoeiwonde wat die swam dan suksesvol geinfekteer het. Dit is daarom hoogs waarskynlik dat van die ander wingerd stamsiekte patogene ook versprei kan word op dieselfde manier. Hierdie kennis demonstreer dat die beheer van spesifieke arthropoda in ag geneem moet word in die bestuur van wingerd stamsiektes.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/80224
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