State cooperation within the context of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court : a critical reflection

Ngari, Allan Rutambo (2013-03)

Thesis (LLM)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Bibliography

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis is a reflection of the provisions of the Rome Statute in relation to the most fundamental condition for the effective functioning of the Court – the cooperation of states. It broadly examines the challenges experienced by the Court with respect to application of Part IX such as whether non-State Parties to the Rome Statute can, notwithstanding their right not to be party, be compelled to cooperate with the Court owing to the customary international law obligation for all States to repress, find and punish persons alleged to have committed the crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court (war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide). This is particularly challenging where such persons are nationals of non-States Parties. The various meanings of international cooperation in criminal matters is discussed with reference to and distinguished from the cooperation regime of the International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia. For States Parties to the Rome Statute, the thesis evaluates the measure of their inability or unwillingness to genuinely prosecute persons alleged to have committed crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court within the context of the principle of complementarity. It seeks to address, where such inability or unwillingness has been determined by the Court, how effective the cooperation between the States Parties and the Court could best serve the interests of justice. The thesis answers the question on what extent the principle of complementarity influences the cooperation of States with the Court, whether or not these States are party to the Rome Statute. The concept of positive complementarity that establishes a measure of cooperation between the Court and the national criminal jurisdictions is further explored in the context of the Court’s capacity to strengthen local ownership of the enforcement of international criminal justice. A nuanced discussion on the practice of the Court with respect to the right of persons before the Court is developed. The rights of an accused in different phases of Court proceedings and the rights of victims and affected communities of crimes within the Court’s jurisdiction are considered at length and in the light of recently-established principles regulating the Court’s treatment of these individuals. These persons are key interlocutors in the international criminal justice system and have shifted the traditional focus of international law predominantly from states to individuals and bring about a different kind of relationship between States as a collective and their treatment of these individuals arising from obligations to the Rome Statute. Finally the thesis interrogates the enforcement mechanisms under the Rome Statute. Unlike States, the Court does not have an enforcement entity such as a Police Force that would arrest persons accused of committing crimes within its jurisdiction, conduct searches and seizures or compel witnesses to appear before the Court. Yet, the Court must critically assess its practice of enforcing sentences that it imposes on convicted persons and in its contribution to restorative justice, the enforcement of reparations orders in collaboration with other Rome Statute entities such as the Trust Fund for Victims.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie tesis is 'n weerspieëling van die bepalings van die Statuut van Rome in verhouding tot die mees fundamentele voorwaarde vir die effektiewe funksionering van die Hof - die samewerking van State. Dit ondersoek breedweg die uitdagings wat deur die Hof ervaar word met betrekking tot die toepassing van Deel IX soos byvoorbeeld of State wat nie partye is tot die Statuut van Rome, nieteenstaande hul reg om nie deel te wees nie, verplig kan word om saam te werk met die Hof weens die internasionale gewoontereg verpligting om alle persone wat na bewering misdade gepleeg het binne die jurisdiksie van die Hof (oorlogsmisdade, misdade teen die mensdom en volksmoord) te verhinder, vind en straf. Dit is veral uitdagend waar sodanige persone burgers is van State wat nie partye is nie. Die verskillende betekenisse van die internasionale samewerking in kriminele sake word bespreek met verwysing na, en onderskei van, die samewerkende stelsel van die Internasionale Kriminele Tribunale vir Rwanda en die voormalige Joego-Slawië. Vir State wat partye is tot die Statuut van Rome, evalueer die tesis - in die konteks van die beginsel van komplementariteit - die mate van hul onvermoë, of ongewilligheid om werklik persone te vervolg wat na bewering misdade gepleeg het binne die jurisdiksie van die Hof. Dit poog om aan te spreek, waar so 'n onvermoë of ongewilligheid bepaal is deur die Hof, hoe effektiewe samewerking tussen State wat partye is en die Hof, die belange van geregtigheid die beste kan dien. Die tesis beantwoord die vraag op watter mate die beginsel van komplementariteit die samewerking van die State met die Hof beïnvloed, ongeag of hierdie State partye is tot die Statuut van Rome. Die konsep van positiewe komplementariteit wat samewerking vestig tussen die Hof en die nasionale jurisdiksies aangaande kriminele sake word verder ondersoek in die konteks van die Hof se vermoë om plaaslike eienaarskap in die handhawing van die internasionale kriminele regstelsel te versterk. 'n Genuanseerde bespreking op die praktyk van die Hof met betrekking tot die reg van persone voor die Hof word ontwikkel. Die regte van 'n beskuldigde in die verskillende fases van die hof verrigtinge en die regte van slagoffers en geaffekteerde gemeenskappe van misdade binne die hof se jurisdiksie word in diepte bespreek in die lig van die onlangs gevestigde beginsels wat die Hof se behandeling van hierdie individue reguleer. Hierdie persone is sleutel gespreksgenote in die internasionale kriminele regstelsel en het die tradisionele fokus verskuif van die internasionale reg van State na individue, en bring oor 'n ander soort verhouding tussen State as 'n kollektiewe en hulle behandeling van hierdie individue as gevolg van hul verpligtinge aan die Statuut van Rome. Ten slotte bevraagteken die tesis die handhawings meganismes onder die Statuut van Rome. In teenstelling met State, het die Hof nie 'n handhawing entiteit soos 'n Polisiemag wat persone kon arresteer wat beskuldig word van misdade binne sy jurisdiksie, deursoek en beslagleggings uitvoer of persone dwing om as getuies te verskyn voor die Hof nie. Tog, moet die Hof sy praktyk van uitvoering van vonnisse wat dit oplê op veroordeelde persone en in sy bydrae tot herstellende geregtigheid die handhawing van herstelling in samewerking met ander Statuut van Rome entiteite soos die Trust Fonds vir Slagoffers krities assesseer.

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