Triniteit, antropologie en ecclesiologie : een kritisch onderzoek naar implicaties van de godsleer voor de positie van mannen en vrouwen in de kerk

Leene, Alida Maria Jantina (2013-03)

Thesis (DTh)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This dissertation concerns the implications of the doctrine of the Trinity and the debate about women in ministry. The first chapter serves as introduction to the debate regarding men and women in the church as well as introduction to the doctrine of the Trinity. In the former, anthropology and ecclesiology very rarely get awarded equal discussion. More important, they are both influenced by the doctrine of God but little attention is given to these influences. The recent renaissance in trinitarian theology gives new opportunities in this regard. It is not without danger of projection, but we can do this because humankind is created in the image of God. Because the image of God firstly says something about God, chapter 2 deals with the doctrine of God in terms of the Trinity. The question is whether a relational understanding provides a justified vision on the doctrine of the Trinity. There are four topics discussed: (1) the One and Three, (2) the economic and immanent Trinity, (3) subordination, (4) language. Chapter 3 is about the traditional rational interpretation of the imago Dei who has been dominant throughout history. This is based upon the Deo uno understanding and has to do with (1) substance (2) carnality (3) the fall (4) masculinity. Due to the Reformation there was more attention for the Christological interpretation. It points to a more relational aspect but it could easily still be interpreted in a rational and an individualistic manner. The pneumatology is mostly ignored. Chapter 4 argues that speaking of imago Trinitatis instead of imago Dei deserves preference. The imago Trinitatis points to the importance of relationships, with God, neighbour and nature. After exploring definitions, there can be stated that masculinity and femininity together point to relationality. Regarding the issue of subordination, from a trinitarian mindset the relationship between men and women should be understood as a relationship of mutual submission. In chapter 5, firstly the understanding of imago Dei is discussed regarding ecclesiology and the ministry. The unity of the church and the Christological representation has been dominant throughout history. It could cause the exclusion of the Holy Spirit and women from the ministry. If the Church is seen rather as imago Trinitatis, the relationship between God and human, individual and community is expressed. For the ministry the starting point must be in the ministry of all believers. From a relational point of view the ordained ministry points to a different relationship with the congregation. The thematic of subordinance plays a large role in the question about whether women should be allowed into the ordained ministries, but mutual submission must be the central point. This is also seen in the use of feminine language in ecclesiology which points to an intimate relationship between God and the church. Only when men and women work together in the ordained ministry they represent the imago Trinitatis. Chapter 6 provides an overview of the study, drawes conclusions and gives practical recommendations.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie dissertasie gaan oor die implikasies van die godsleer vir die debat oor vroue in die amp. Die eerste hoofstuk dien as ’n inleiding op al twee onderwerpe. In die debat oor mans en vroue in die kerk is daar min aandag vir hoe die antropologie en ekklesiologie beïnvloed word deur die godsleer. Die onlangse renaissanse in trinitariese teologie gee nuwe moontlikhede om te kyk watter implikasies die godsleer het vir die antropologie en ekklesiologie. Al is daar die gevaar van projeksie, die verbinding tussen die onderwerpe kan gemaak word omdat die mens geskep is na die beeld van God. Omdat die beeld van God eerste iets sê oor God, word die dogma van die Triniteit bespreek in hoofstuk 2. Die vraag is of relasionaliteit help om ’n verantwoorde verstaan van die dogma te gee. Vier onderwerpe word behandel: 1. Die verhouding tussen die Deo uno en die Deo trino. 2. Die verhouding tussen die ekonomiese en immanente Triniteit. 3. Subordinasie in die Godheid. 4. Trinitariese taalgebruik. Hoofdstuk drie gaan oor die dominante rasionele interpretasie van die imago Dei. Dit is gebaseer op die Deo uno en het te make met substansie, liggaamlikheid, die sondeval en manlikheid. Deur die Reformasie het meer aandag gekom vir die Christologie en daardeur vir relasionaliteit, maar die pneumatologie kry min aandag en dit bly primêr gerig op die rasionele, die individu en die manlike geslag. Hoofdstuk vier argumenteer dat dit beter is om van imago Trinitatis as van imago Dei te praat, omdat die verhouding met die Triniteit en mense onderling sentraal staan. Manlik en vroulik is deel van die beeld van God en wys op die belang van verhoudings. Vanuit ’n trinitariese oogpunt moet subordinasie verstaan word vanuit wederkerige onderdanigheid. Hoofdstuk vyf bespreek eerstens die tradisionele imago Dei verstaan vir die ekklesiologie en geordineerde bediening. In die geskiedenis en tans speel eenheid en Christologiese representasie ’n dominante rol. Dit kan maak dat die Heilige Gees geen aandag kry nie asook dat vroue uitgesluit word van die geordineerde bediening. As die kerk egter gesien word as imago Trinitatis staan die verhouding tussen God en mens, individu en gemeenskap sentraal. Vanuit ’n relasionele oogpunt is die geordineerde bediening ’n ander verhouding met die gemeente. Subordinasie moet verwerp word op grond van geslag, en wederkerige onderdanigheid moet vanuit trinitariese perspektief verkies word. Dit is ook sigbaar in die vroulike ekklesiologiese terminologie. Dit wys op die intieme verhouding tussen God en die kerk. Manne én vroue verteenwoordig die bruid. Net wanneer hulle saamwerk in die geordineerde bediening verteenwoordig hulle die imago Trinitatis. Hoofdstuk 6 gee ’n oorsig van die ondersoek en maak verskillende gevolgtrekkings asook aanbevelings.

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