Sensor technology to assess grape bunch temperature variability in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz

Moffat, Tessa (2013-03)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The microclimate environment around the bunch is complex. The spatial distribution of leaves as well as bunch position and morphology impact on the path of direct radiation received by the berries. Canopy microclimate is largely determined by the meteorological conditions (air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, and precipitation) as well as management practices (trellis/training system, canopy height, vine spacing, row orientation, canopy management practices, irrigation and soil variability and management). The fact that the grapevine continuously responds to its environment, adds to the complexity and dynamic nature of the microclimate that the bunches experience. Field studies involving the effect of the natural bunch environment (i.e. light and temperature conditions) on berry composition, are therefore a challenge, due to the difficulties in quantifying meteorological elements such as temperature and light, which can be hugely variable. There are different sensors available to assess bunch and berry temperature and it can be deployed in different ways within the grapevine canopy, but the difficulty remains in studying the variability that exists within a bunch. This study investigated the value of available sensor technology to measure bunch/berry temperature as well as the spatial and temporal variability on a bunch. Differences in temperature on an intra-berry level were assessed whereas the impact of canopy configuration and bunch orientation on the different sensor levels was also investigated. The contribution of macro- and mesoclimate on bunch and berry temperature was addressed by measuring at two locations (Robertson and Stellenbosch). The potential long term differences in temperature within a bunch with regard to thermal accumulation are discussed. Issues around sensor placement and some technical difficulties related to the sensors are discussed. The results indicated how the effects of mesoclimate were transferred through to the different sensors. A dominating effect of the sea breeze in Stellenbosch was found. Canopy configuration/architecture affected the light regime in the canopy, consequently impacting on bunch temperature variability, specifically in Stellenbosch where a "Ballerina" trellising system was used. Bunch orientation resulted in differences in the temporal variability of bunch/berry temperature and little variability was observed in temperature within the berry. Temperatures of berries situated at the back of the bunch were judged more optimal compared to exposed berries. Direct radiation caused extreme temperatures in exposed berries, which may be detrimental to berry composition and wine quality. This emphasized the importance of the canopy (trellis/training system and management practices) in protecting the bunch from extreme conditions. The large on-bunch spatial variability, observed from measurements with the thermal imager, demonstrated the importance of sensor placement in quantifying the bunch temperature regime; this is also relevant for the future development of berry temperature modelling. Thermal accumulation through the season also illustrated the variability that existed within a bunch, suggesting a potential long term effect on the berry composition. This study proved, in conditions similar to those that may prevail in the South African wine industry, that sensor type and positioning need to be carefully considered in any viticultural/oenological study where bunch microclimate and grape temperatures are assessed.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die mikroklimaat omgewing rondom die tros is kompleks. Die ruimtelike verspreiding van blare sowel as trosposisie en -morfologie het 'n impak op die pad waarlangs direkte straling ontvang word deur die korrels. Lowermikroklimaat word grootliks bepaal deur die meteorologiese kondisies (lugtemperatuur, sonstraling, windspoed en -rigting, relatiewe humiditeit en reënval) sowel as bestuurspraktyke (prieel/opleistelsel, lowerhoogte, wingerdstokspasiëring, ry-oriëntasie, lowerbestuurspraktyke, besproeiing asook grondvariasie en bestuur). Die feit dat die wingerdstok voortdurend reageer op sy omgewing dra by tot die kompleksiteit en dinamiese aard van die mikroklimaat wat die trosse ervaar. Veldstudies gemoeid met die effek van die natuurlike trosomgewing (d.w.s. lig- en temperatuurkondisies) op korrelsamestelling is daarom 'n uitdaging. Die rede hiervoor is dat dit problematies is om meteorologiese elemente soos temperatuur en lig, wat baie veranderlik kan wees, te kwantifiseer. Verskillende sensors is beskikbaar waarmee tros- en korreltemperatuur bepaal kan word en dit kan op verskillende wyses binne die wingerdstoklower aangewend word. Die bestudering van die variasie wat bestaan binne 'n tros is egter steeds problematies. Hierdie studie het die waarde ondersoek van die beskikbare sensortegnologie vir die meting van tros/korreltemperatuur en die ruimtelike en tydsvariasie op 'n tros. Verskille in temperatuur op 'n intra-korrelvlak is bepaal terwyl die impak van lowerkonfigurasie en trosoriëntasie op die verskillende sensorvlakke ook ondersoek is. Die bydrae van makro- en mesoklimaat tot tros- en korreltemperatuur is ondersoek deur te meet by twee verskillende liggings (Robertson en Stellenbosch). Die potensiële langtermyn verskille in temperatuur binne-in 'n tros met betrekking tot temperatuur akkumulasie word bespreek. Kwessies rakende sensorplasing en sommige tegniese probleme wat verband hou met sensors word bespreek. Die resultate het aangedui hoedat die effekte van mesoklimaat oorgedra is na die verskillende sensors. 'n Dominerende effek van die seebries is waargeneem in Stellenbosch. Lowerkonfigurasie/argitektuur het die ligregime in die lower beïnvloed en gevolglik 'n invloed gehad op die trostemperatuur veranderlikheid. Dit was veral die geval in Stellenbosch waar 'n "Ballerina" opleistelsel gebruik is. Trosoriëntasie het gelei tot verskille in tydsvariasie van tros/ korreltemperatuur en min variasie is waargeneem in temperatuur binne die korrel. Temperature van korrels wat voorkom aan die agterkant van die tros is beoordeel as meer optimaal vergeleke met blootgestelde korrels. Direkte straling het uiterste temperature in blootgestelde korrels veroorsaak wat nadelig kan wees vir korrelsamestelling en wynkwaliteit. Hierdeur is die belang van die lower (prieel/opleistelsel en bestuurspraktyke) om die tros te beskerm teen uiterste kondisies beklemtoon. Die groot ruimtelike variasie op 'n tros, soos waargeneem in metings met die termiese kamera, het die belangrikheid van sensorplasing in die kwantifisering van die trostemperatuur regime beklemtoon. Dit is ook relevant vir die toekomstige ontwikkeling van korreltemperatuur modellering. Termiese akkumulasie gedurende die seisoen is ook geïllustreer deur die veranderlikheid wat voorkom binne 'n tros, wat dui op 'n potensiële langtermyn effek op die korrelsamestelling. Hierdie studie het bewys, in kondisies wat algemeen voorkom in die Suid-Afrikaanse wynbedryf, dat sensortipe en -plasing sorgvuldig in ag geneem moet word in enige wingerd/wynkundige studie waar trosmikroklimaat en druiftemperature bepaal word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/80102
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