Impact response of a continuous fibre reinforced thermoplastic from a soft bodied projectile

Van der Westhuizen, Artho Otto (2013-03)

Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Saamgestelde materiale het baie gewilde materiale in die lugvaart- en motor industrië geword as gevolg van die gewigsbesparende voordele wat dit inhou. Kostes en ander verwerkingsprobleme het tradisioneel die wydverspreide gebruik van spesifiek termoplasties-versterkte vesels in hierdie areas verhinder. Baie van die vervaardigingsprobleme (spesifiek lang siklusse) is aangespreek met die aanvang van termoplastiese matriks materiaal soos Polyphenolien Sulfied (PPS). Hierdie materiaal voldoen ook aan die lugvaart-industrie se brand-, rook- en giftigheidstandaarde. Termoplastiese saamgestelde materiale kan byvoorbeeld gevind word op komponente in vliegtuie se binneruimtes en ook die voorste rand van die vlerke. Hierdie komponente is hoogs vatbaar vir impakskade. Die hoë sterkte en styfheid tot gewig verhoudings van saamgestelde materiale laat toe vir dun materiaal dwarssnitte. Komponente is dus kwesbaar vir uit-vlakkige impak beladings. Saamgestelde materiale kan ook intern deur hierdie beladings beskadig word en kan nie met die blote oog waargeneem kan word nie. Dit is dus nodig om die skade weens hierdie beladings tydens normale gebruik akkuraat te voorspel. Verder sal dit nuttig wees om die struktuur se gedrag te bepaal in toepassings waar byvoorbeeld passasier veiligheid krities is, soos op vliegtuig ruglenings tydens noodlandings. In hierdie studie is die potensiële vervaardigingsvoordele van termoplastiese saamgestelde materiale gedemonstreer. Daarbenewens is 'n uit-vlakkige impak deur 'n sagte liggaam herbou in 'n laboratorium omgewing. Die primêre doelwit van hierdie studie was om die impak numeries te modelleer. Vervaardigingsvoordele van `n vesel versterkte termoplastiese laminaat is gedemonstreer deur die vervaardiging van 'n konkawe, agt laag laminaat uit 'n vooraf gekonsolideerde geweefde doek. Die totale verwerkingstyd van die plat laminaat na 'n konkawe laminaat was minder as vyf minute. 'n Eenvoudige plat laminaat en 'n konkawe laminaat is onderwerp aan 'n lae snelheid impak deur 'n sagte projektiel. Die impak is gemodelleer deur die evaluering van drie modelleringsmetodes vir die saamgestelde paneel. Die evalueringskriteria het o.a. ingesluit of laminaat se volle gedrag suksesvol gemodelleer kon word met behulp van slegs 2D dop elemente. Die reaksie van die saamgestelde paneel en gepaardgaande faling is met wisselende vlakke van sukses deur die drie geëvalueerde modelle voorspel. Die faling van tussen-laminêre bindings (verwys na as delaminasie) kon nie deur enige van die modelle voorspel word nie. Twee van die modelle het egter in-vlak faling met redelike akkuraatheid voorspel.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Due to weight saving advantages composite materials have become a highly popular material in the aerospace and automotive industries. Traditionally processing difficulties and costs have been a barrier to widespread composite material use in these industries. With the advent of thermoplastic matrix materials such as Polyphenoline Sulphide (PPS) the processing difficulties (especially long cycle times) experienced with traditional thermosetting resins can be addressed while maintaining aerospace Fire-Smoke and Toxicity (FST) approval. Thermoplastic composites can for example be found on aircraft interior components and leading edges of the wings. These areas are highly susceptible to impact damage. The high strength- and stiffness to weight ratios of composites allows for thin material cross sections. This leaves the components vulnerable to out-of-plane impact loads. Composite materials may also be damaged internally by these loads, leaving the damage undetectable through visual inspections. It may therefore be necessary to predict the amount of damage a component would sustain during normal operation. Additionally, it would be useful to predict structural response of these materials in applications where passenger safety is crucial, such as aircraft seat backrests during emergency landings. In this study the potential processing benefits of thermoplastic composite materials were demonstrated. Additionally an out-of-plane impact from a soft bodied projectile was reconstructed in a laboratory environment. The primary objective was to numerically model the impact event. Processing benefits of thermoplastics were demonstrated by producing a single curvature eight layered laminate from a pre-consolidated woven sheet. The total processing time from flat panel to a single curvature panel was below five minutes. A simple flat laminate and a single curvature laminate were subjected to a low velocity drop weight impact load from a soft bodied projectile. These impact events were modelled by evaluating three modelling methods for the composite panel structural response and damage evolution. Part of the evaluation criteria included whether laminate failure could be modelled successfully using only 2D shell elements. The response of the composite panel and accompanying failure were predicted with varying levels of success by the three evaluated models. The failure of interlaminar bonds (referred to as delamination) could not be predicted by either model. However two of the models predicted in-plane failure with reasonable accuracy.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/80095
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