A motor skills development programme for 10 to 12 year-old children

Breytenbach, Riana (2013-03)

Thesis (M Sport Sc)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Many children experience developmental problems without being aware thereof. In a school setting these developmental delays mostly remain unnoticed and are scarcely remediated sufficiently, if at all. Children with developmental deficits often experience movement difficulties and are labelled as clumsy, sloppy or having two left feet. The development of, and proficiency in specific motor skills have been found to play a critical role in the participation of physical activity in children, as well as the maintenance of health and well-being later in life, when entering adulthood. There are, however, countless other factors that affect the optimal development of motor skills and physical activity participation. One such factor is ascribed to instances where children experience problems associated with their environment or the circumstances in which they grow up. Poor socio-economic circumstances and a culturally poor environment, lacking sufficient developmental opportunities, may hinder a child‟s motor skills development and skill learning to such an extent that they cannot reach their full developmental potential. Research suggests that the school environment can provide ample opportunity for the development of motor skills and that all schools should consider implementing motor skills development programmes during the Physical Education (PE) time slots. The mastery of motor skills may influence and benefit the participation in various school sports and may also enhance the ability of children to learn and master new and more complex movement skills within and outside the classroom environment. Thus, due to the fact that children spend a great part of their day at school and in the classroom setting, teachers, especially those facilitating PE, have the opportunity to play a vital role in the acquisition and mastery of important motor skills and subsequently affect the physical activity and developmental future of children. The purpose of this study was to design and implement a motor skills development programme to improve the balance and bilateral coordination of children between the ages of 10 and 12 years in the Stellenbosch region. Two existing classes, from a previously disadvantaged school, were recruited and randomly selected as an experimental (n=35) and control group (n=32). The children completed the Short Form as well as all the Long Form activities for the balance and bilateral coordination subtests of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 (BOT-2). This was done to provide an overview of the overall motor proficiency and more specifically the level of balance and bilateral coordination. A 12-week motor skills development programme, with a specific focus on balance and bilateral coordination, was designed and implemented by the researcher. The effect of this programme was determined by statistically analysing and comparing the pre- and post-test results with the use of Statistica 2010. The main findings of this study indicated that the intervention programme had a positive, although not statistically significant, effect on the overall motor proficiency and balance and significantly improved bilateral coordination. This study suggests that some of the children, between the ages of 10 and 12, from a previously disadvantaged school in the Stellenbosch region and with access to an established school PE programme, experienced movement difficulties. Consequently, there is great room for improvement and motor skill development in these children. This study can, therefore, be a stepping stone into future research regarding further motor skills research in primary school children, the implementation of expanded motor skills intervention programmes and to improve all the motor skills as opposed to selected motor skills as in this study.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Ontwikkelingsprobleme word, sonder dat ʼn mens daarvan bewus is, deur vele kinders ervaar. In die skool-omgewing bly hierdie ontwikkelingsagterstande meestal ongesiens en word min kinders, indien enige, voldoende geremedieer. Kinders met ontwikkelingsagterstande ervaar gereeld bewegingsprobleme en word as lomp, slordig of as iemand met twee linkervoete beskryf. Daar word beweer dat die ontwikkeling van, en vaardigheid in, spesifieke motoriese vaardighede van kinders ʼn kritieke rol in hul deelname aan fisieke aktiwiteit, asook die onderhoud van gesondheid en welstand tydens volwassenheid, speel. Daar is egter talle ander faktore wat die optimale motoriese ontwikkeling en fisieke aktiwiteit deelname van kinders kan beïnvloed. ʼn Voorbeeld van so ʼn faktor word toegeskryf aan gevalle waar kinders probleme, wat met hulle omgewing of die omstandighede waarin hul grootword geassosieer word, ervaar. Swak sosio-ekonomiese omstandighede en ʼn kultureel-arme omgewing, wat tekort skiet aan voldoende ontwikkelingsgeleenthede, mag die motoriese ontwikkeling en die aanleer van nuwe vaardighede tot so ʼn mate inhibeer dat kinders nie in staat is om hulle volle ontwikkelingspotensiaal te bereik nie. Navorsing dui daarop dat die skoolomgewing vele geleenthede vir die ontwikkeling van motoriese vaardighede kan bied en dat daar onderneem moet word om motoriese vaardigheid-ontwikkelingsprogramme tydens Liggaamlike Opvoeding (LO) periodes te implementeer. Die bemeestering van motoriese vaardighede mag die deelname aan verskeie skoolsporte beïnvloed en bevoordeel, asook die vermoë om nuwe en meer komplekse bewegingsvaardighede binne en buite die klasomgewing aan te leer en te bemeester, bevorder. Dus, aangesien kinders ʼn groot gedeelte van hul dag by die skool en in ʼn klasomgewing deurbring, het onderwysers, veral die wat LO fasiliteer, die geleentheid om ʼn noodsaaklike rol in die aanleer en bemeestering van belangrike motoriese vaardighede, en vervolgens fisieke aktiwiteit, asook die toekomstige ontwikkeling van kinders te beïnvloed. Die doel van hierdie studie was om ʼn motoriese vaardigheid-ontwikkelingsprogram, wat balans en bilaterale koördinasie bevorder, vir 10 tot 12-jarige kinders in die Stellenbosch omgewing te ontwerp en implementeer. Twee bestaande klasse vanuit ʼn voorheenbenadeelde skool was gewerf en lukraak verkies as ʼn eksperimentele- (n=35) en kontrolegroep (n=32). Kinders het die kort vorm- asook al die lang vorm-aktiwiteite vir balans en bilaterale koördinasie sub-toetse van die Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 (BOT-2) voltooi. Hierdie toetse is afgelê om ʼn oorsig van die algehele motoriese vaardigheidsvlak, en meer spesifiek die vlak van balans en bilaterale koördinasie, te bepaal. ʼn 12-week motoriese vaardigheid-ontwikkelingsprogram, met ʼn spesifieke fokus op balans en bilaterale koördinasie, is deur die navorser ontwerp en geïmplementeer. Die effek van hierdie program is bepaal deur die pre- en post-toets resultate met behulp van Statistica 2010 statisties te analiseer en vergelyk. Die primêre bevindinge van hierdie studie dui daarop dat die intervensieprogram ʼn positiewe, alhoewel nie statisties beduidende, effek op die bevordering van algehele motoriese vaardigheidsvlak en balans, asook ʼn statisties beduidende effek op bilaterale koördinasie gehad het. Hierdie studie dui daarop dat kinders, tussen die ouderdomme van 10 en 12, vanuit ʼn voorheenbenadeelde skool in die Stellenbosch omgewing en wat toegang tot ʼn gevestigde LO program het, steeds bewegingsprobleme ervaar. Dus, is daar groot ruimte vir die verbetering en ontwikkeling van motoriese vaardighede by hierdie kinders. Hierdie studie kan dus as ʼn beginpunt vir toekomstige navorsing in verdere motoriese vaardigheids-navorsing van laerskool kinders, die implementering van uitgebreide motoriese intervensieprogramme, asook die bevordering van alle motoriese vaardighede in vergelyking met geselekteerde motoriese vaardighede soos in die huidige studie dien.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/80092
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