Quantitative assessment of yield traits between family groups of the cultured abalone, Haliotis midae, during the process of canning

Gerber, Maria Elizabeth (Mariette) (2013-03)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The species Haliotis midae is of great commercial value to the South African abalone industry and is mainly exported to Asian markets, specifically China. Up to 50% is sold as canned products with H. midae registering an average canning yield of approximately 35%. The species is presently genetically undomesticated and breeding programmes are being introduced to improve a range of production traits of which growth and yield is of primary importance. The objective of the study was to determine genetic parameters such as heritability, genotypic and phenotypic correlations of yield-related traits to assess the potential genetic improvement through selective breeding. A series of yield-related parameters were identified that is of relevance to the standard abalone canning procedure. Low to moderate heritabilities where recorded for most traits, including pre-shuck/live weight (0.20 ± 0.06), post-shuck weight (0.15 ± 0.05), post-gut weight (0.15 ± 0.05), post-brine weight (0.19 ± 0.06), pre-canning weight (0.19 ± 0.06), post-canning weight (0.21 ± 0.06), shell weight (0.16 ± 0.05), canning yield percentage (0.08 ± 0.03) and shell weight to post-gut weight ratio (SW: PGW) (0.09 ± 0.04). Weight related parameters are phenotypically highly correlated (0.86 ≤ r ≤ 0.99) but show negative correlation with canning yield percentage (-0.38 ≤ r ≤ 0.04). The nett yield of abalone shows a relatively strong positive correlation with the live weight (r = 0.66). Shell length is highly heritable (h2 ≈ 0.48) and show a strong positive correlation with live weight (r = 0.94). Shell weight is also highly correlated with live weight (r = 0.80) and the SW: PGW ratio does not show a significant correlate with live weight (r = 0.03). Weight-related traits show heritability values ranging from 0.15 to 0.20 that could allow a positive genetic response. Shell length (as a linear growth parameter) shows a high heritability (h2 ≈ 0.48) and a strong positive correlation with live weight (r = 0.94) which also makes it suitable for use as a selection criterion in breeding programmes for improved growth rate. Direct selection for canning yield is compromised by the destructive nature of measurement and the low heritability (h2 < 0.10). The negative correlations between yield as a percentage and growth traits (-0.38 ≤ r ≤ 0.04) further complicate its use as a direct breeding objective. Although the canning yield as a percentage shows a decrease with an increase in live weight, the nett canning yield increases (r = 0.66) with the live weight. It is therefore recommended to use shell length as a criterion for selection for increased growth rate and nett yield, thereby optimising profitability.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die spesie Haliotis midae is van groot kommersiёle waarde tot die Suid-Afrikaanse perlemoenindustrie en word meestal uitgevoer na markte in Asiё, spesifiek China. Tot 50% van die perlemoen wat in Suid-Afrika geproduseer en uitgevoer word, word verblik en huidiglik is die verblikkingsopbrengspersentasie ongeveer 35%. Haliotis midae is tans geneties onderontwikkeld en die gebruik van teelprogramme word nou geimplementeer met die doel om 'n verskeidenheid eienskappe te verbeter, waarvan groei en opbrengs van primêre belang is. Die doelwit van die studie was om genetiese parameters soos oorerflikheid en ook die genotipiese en fenotipiese korrelasies van obrengsverwante eienskappe te bepaal om sodoende die potensiёle genetiese verbetering as gevolg van selektiewe teeling te assesseer. 'n Reeks obrengsverwante eienskappe is geidentifiseer wat relevant is binne bestaande en standaard kommersiёle perlemoenverblikkingsprotokolle. Lae tot matige oorerflikheidswaardes is waargeneem en sluit in lewende, of voor-ontskulpingsgewig (0.20 ± 0.06), na-ontskulpingsgewig (0.15 ± 0.05), na-oopvlekkingsgewig (0.15 ± 0.05), na-pekelgewig (0.19 ± 0.06), voor-verblikkingsgewig (0.19 ± 0.06), na-verblikkingsgewig (0.21 ± 0.06), skulpgewig (0.16 ± 0.05), verblikkingsopbrengspersentasie (0.08 ± 0.03) en 'n skulpgewig tot na-oopvlekkingsgewig verhouding (SW: PGW) (0.09 ± 0.04). Gewigsverwante parameters is fenotipies hoogs gekorreleerd met mekaar (0.86 ≤ r ≤ 0.99) maar toon 'n negatiewe korrelasie met die verblikkingsopbrengspersentasie (-0.38 ≤ r ≤ 0.04). Die netto opbrengs van perlemoen dui op 'n relatiewe sterk positiewe korrelasie met lewende gewig (r = 0.66). Skulplengte is hoogs oorerflik (h2 ≈ 0.48) en toon 'n sterk positiewe korrelasie met lewende gewig (r = 0.94). Skulpgewig is ook hoogs gekorreleerd met lewende gewig (r = 0.80) en die SW: PGW verhouding toon geen beduidende korrelasie met lewende gewig nie (r = 0.03). Gewigsverwante eienskappe toon oorerflikheidswaardes wat varieer tussen 0.15 en 0.20 en kan 'n moontlike genetiese respons lewer. Skulplengte (as 'n liniêre groeiparameter) toon 'n hoё oorerflikheid (h2 ≈ 0.48) en 'n sterk positiewe korrelasie met lewende gewig (r = 0.94) wat dit gepas maak vir gebruik as 'n seleksiekriterium in 'n teelprogram met verbeterde groeitempo as doel. Direkte seleksie in terme van verblikkingsopbrengs word ingeboet danksy die destruktiewe natuur van die metingsmetodiek asook 'n lae oorerflikheid (h2 < 0.10). Die negatiewe korrelasies tussen verblikkingsopbrengs (uitgedruk as 'n persentasie) en groeieienskappe (-0.38 ≤ r ≤ 0.04) dien as 'n verdere komplikasie in die gebruik van dié eienskap as direkte teeldoelwit. Alhoewel die verblikkingopbrengs 'n afname toon soos lewende gewig toeneem, is daar steeds 'n positiewe korrelasie tussen die netto verblikkingsopbrengs en die lewende gewig (r = 0.66). Dit word dus aangeraai om skulplengte as seleksiekriterium vir verbeterde groeitempo en netto opbrengs te gebruik om sodoende wins te maksimaliseer.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/80085
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