The impact of nutrients on aroma and flavour production during wine fermentation

Smit, Anita Yolandi (2013-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: During wine fermentation, numerous grape must constituents serve as nutrients to wine yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which enable their growth and successful completion of alcoholic fermentation. Many of these nutritional factors, in particular nitrogen, also act as precursors for yeastderived flavour compounds such as higher alcohols, esters and volatile fatty acids. Yeast nitrogen metabolism thus plays a determining role in wine aroma and quality. Not only is the nitrogen source, concentration and supplementation timing important, but various environmental factors and the genetic constitution of the yeast strain used for fermentation will also contribute to fermentation outcomes. The main goal of this work was to explore the complex interactions between a number of contributing factors; namely nitrogen source, timing of addition, yeast strain and fermentation matrix. Broadly, this study assessed the impact of seven different nitrogen combinations, added either to the initial grape must or after the onset of fermentation, on fermentation performance and aroma compound production by nine commercial wine yeast strains. Fermentations were done in synthetic grape must, and validated for a subset of parameters in real grape must. The nitrogen treatments were designed according to the generally established order of preference of S. cerevisiae for individual amino acids as source of nitrogen under fermentative conditions, and the potential of certain amino acids to participate in metabolic pathways that produce specific aroma compounds. The results reveal that different nitrogen combinations can lead to unexpected aroma outcomes, depending strongly on the genetic background of individual yeast strains and the timing of nitrogen addition. Certain nitrogen treatments consistently resulted in significant increases or decreases in specific aroma compound concentrations in comparison to the treatment fermented on ammonium as only nitrogen source, for multiple yeast strains. These compounds were classified as nitrogen treatment dependent. Other aroma compounds were produced similarly for all nitrogen treatments and were designated as nitrogen treatment independent. The presence of specific amino acid groups (for example the branched-chain and aromatic amino acids) could be correlated to significantly altered production patterns of related (such as higher alcohols) or unrelated (diethyl succinate) aroma compounds relative to the other nitrogen treatments. Taken together, a number of interesting and novel hypotheses regarding the metabolic pathways involved could be derived from the data. Ultimately, this initial assessment of interactive effects during fermentation will contribute to practical guidelines for winemakers to allow matching grape must constituents (such as nutrients) with the intrinsic aroma production capabilities of specific yeast strains in order to modulate wine aroma, style and quality.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tydens wynfermentasie dien talle druiwemosbestanddele as voedingstowwe vir wyngis (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) wat hul groei bevorder en hul in staat stel om alkoholiese fermentasie suksesvol te voltooi. Baie van hierdie voedingstowwe, veral stikstof, dien ook as voorlopers vir geurkomponente afkomstig van gismetabolisme, soos hoër alkohole, esters en vlugtige vetsure. Die stikstofmetabolisme van gis speel dus ‘n bepalende rol in wynaroma en -kwaliteit. Nie net is die stikstofbron, konsentrasie en tydsberekening van stikstof toevoeging belangrik nie, maar verskeie omgewingsfaktore, asook die genetiese samestelling van die gisras aangewend vir fermentasie, sal bydra tot die fermentasie uitkomste. Die hoofdoel van hierdie werk was om die komplekse interaksies tussen ‘n aantal bydraende faktore te ondersoek; naamlik die stikstofbron, tyd van stikstof toevoeging, gisras en fermentasiematriks. Breedweg het hierdie studie die impak van sewe verskillende stikstofkombinasies, toegedien tot die druiwemos voor of na die aanvang van fermentasie, op die suksesvolle verloop van fermentasie en die produksie van aromakomponente deur nege kommersiële wyngisrasse bepaal. Fermentasies is in sintetiese druiwemos uitgevoer, en ‘n deelversameling van die fermentasies in regte druiwesap te herhaal. Die stikstofbehandelings is ontwerp in ooreenstemming met die algemeen vasgestelde voorkeurvolgorde van S. cerevisiae vir individuele aminosure as stikstofbron onder fermentatiewe kondisies, en die potensiaal van sekere aminosure om mee te doen in metaboliese paaie wat spesifieke aromaverbindings produseer. Die resultate toon dat verskillende stikstofkombinasies tot onverwagte aroma-uitkomste kan lei wat sterk afhanklik is van die genetiese agtergrond van individuele gisrasse en die tyd van stikstof byvoeging. Sekere stikstofbehandelings het konsekwent, vir veelvuldige gisrasse, tot beduidende toenames of afnames in die konsentrasies van spesifieke aromakomponente gelei in vergelyking met die behandeling wat ammonium as enigste stikstofbron bevat het. Hierdie verbindings is as stikstofbehandeling afhanklik geklassifiseer. Ander aromaverbindings is soortgelyk vir alle stikstofbehandelings geproduseer en is aangewys as stikstofbehandeling onafhanklik. Die teenwoordigheid van spesifieke aminosuurgroepe (byvoorbeeld die vertakte-ketting en aromatiese aminosure) kon gekorreleer word met beduidende veranderings in produksiepatrone van verwante (soos hoër alkohole) of onverwante (dietielsuksinaat) aromakomponente relatief tot die ander stikstofbehandelings. Alles inaggenome kon ‘n aantal interessante en nuwe hipoteses rakende die betrokke metabolise padweë van die data afgelei word. Uiteindelik sal hierdie aanvaklike bepaling van interaktiewe effekte tydens fermentasie bydra tot praktiese riglyne vir wynmakers, wat hulle in staat sal stel om druiwesapbestanddele (soos nutriënte) te strook met die intrinsieke aromaproduksie kapasiteite van spesifieke gisrasse, en sodoende wynaroma, styl en kwaliteit te moduleer.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/80076
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