Die effek van 'n troeteldier-ondersteunde leesprogram op die leesvaardighede van graad 3-kinders in 'n Wes-Kaapse laerskool

Le Roux, Marieanna C. (2013-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Reading problems have become a worldwide phenomenon, even in a first world country like America. Literacy figures in South Africa are even worse. Results of the PIRLS study indicated that the reading skills of 80% of South African children are not fully developed by the time they reach grade 5. In recent literacy tests South African children did worse than children from African countries like Mozambique, Botswana, Swaziland and Tanzania. Despite everything that is being done to improve literacy and numeracy, South African children do not reach their potential. Many South African schools are labeled as being „dysfunctional‟ and 79% of schools do not have libraries. This is a complex matter with multiple causes. Reading programs may contribute to addressing this issue. There are different types of reading programs and it can take place at different levels. One type of program includes the use of pets. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of an animal-assisted reading program on the reading skills of grade 3 children in an Afrikaans medium primary school in the Western Cape. The secondary aim was to determine whether this type of reading program could also have an influence on other factors related to reading, like reading self-concept, self-efficacy, anxiety and school attendance of grade 3 children. All the grade 3 children were assessed with a series of tests. Those who were identified by the ESSI Reading Test as unskilled readers (N=102) were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and one control group. The Dog Group (n=27) read to a dog with a facilitator present, the Facilitator Group (n=24) read to a facilitator while the Teddy Bear Group (n=26) read to a teddy bear with a facilitator present. The Control Group (n=25) continued with their normal school activities. Collection of the data took place before the start of the reading program (Time 1) and directly after completion of the program (Time 2) with a follow-up measurement eight weeks later (Time 3). Once a week during the 10 week animal-assisted reading program all the children read for approximately 20 minutes from grade 1, grade 2 and grade 3 level reading books which they chose themselves. The children were called from their classrooms, individually, to another room where they could read calmly and peacefully to either a dog and a facilitator, or to a facilitator, or to a teddy bear and facilitator, depending on the group they were in. During Time 2 and Time 3 the Dog Group performed significantly better in the ESSI Reading Test than the other three groups. The reading comprehension of the Dog Group, as measured by the Neale Individual Reading Test, also improved significantly compared to that of the other three groups. Mixed results were found regarding reading self-concept, self-efficacy and anxiety. The shortcomings of the present study and recommendations for further research are also discussed.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Leesprobleme is ʼn wêreldwye probleem, selfs in eerstewêreldlande soos Amerika. In Suid-Afrika is die geletterdheidsyfers selfs baie swakker. Die resultate van die PIRLS-studie dui daarop dat 80% van Suid-Afrikaanse kinders se leesvaardighede nie ten volle ontwikkel is wanneer hulle graad 5 bereik nie. Suid-Afrikaanse kinders het ook swakker gevaar in ʼn geletterdheidtoets as kinders van lande soos Mosambiek, Botswana, Swaziland en Tanzanië. Ten spyte van alles wat gedoen word om geletterdheid en syfervaardigheid te verbeter, vaar Suid-Afrikaanse kinders baie swakker as hul potensiaal. Baie Suid-Afrikaanse skole word geëtiketteer as „disfunksioneel‟ en 79% van skole het geen biblioteke nie. Hierdie saak is kompleks en die oorsake veelvuldig. Leesprogramme mag moontlik ʼn bydrae lewer om hierdie kwessie aan te spreek. Dit kan verskeie vorms aanneem en kan op verskillende vlakke plaasvind. Een tipe program behels die gebruik van troeteldiere. Die doel van die huidige studie was om die effek van ʼn troeteldier-ondersteunde leesprogram (TOL) op die leesvaardighede van graad 3-kinders in ʼn Afrikaansmedium laerskool in die Wes-Kaap te bepaal. Verdere doelstellings was om te bepaal of hierdie tipe leesprogram ook ʼn invloed kon hê op ander leesverwante faktore soos leesselfkonsep, self-effektiwiteit, angs en ook die skoolbywoning van graad 3-kinders. Al die graad 3-kinders is getoets met ʼn reeks instrumente en dié wat deur die ESSI Leestoets geïdentifiseer is as nievaardige lesers (N=102) is verder ewekansig toegewys aan drie eksperimentele en een kontrolegroep. Die Leeshondgroep (n=27) het vir ʼn leeshond en leesfasiliteerder gelees, die Leesfasiliteerdergroep (n=24) het vir ʼn leesfasiliteerder alleen gelees terwyl die Teddiebeergroep (n=26) vir ʼn teddiebeer en ʼn leesfasiliteerder gelees het. Die Kontrolegroep (n=25) het voortgegaan met hul normale skoolaktiwiteite. Data-insameling het plaasgevind voor die aanvang van die leesprogram (Tyd 1), direk ná voltooiing van die leesprogram (Tyd 2) en ʼn opvolgmeting het ag weke later (Tyd 3) plaasgevind. Tydens die 10-weke-troeteldier-ondersteunde leesprogram (TOL) het die kinders in elk van die groepe vir ongeveer 20 min. gelees uit graad 1-, 2- en 3-vlak boekies wat hulle self gekies het. Die kinders is individueel uit die klas geneem na ʼn ander lokaal in die skool waar hulle rustig vir óf die leeshond en ʼn leesfasiliteerder, óf die leesfasiliteerder alleen óf ʼn teddiebeer met ʼn leesfasiliteerder gelees het, afhangende van die groep waarin hulle was. Kinders in die Leeshondgroep het beduidend beter gevaar in die ESSI Leestoets tydens Tyd 2 en Tyd 3 as die kinders in die ander drie groepe. Die leesbegrip van die Leeshondgroep, soos gemeet deur die Neale Individuele Leestoets, het ook beduidend verbeter in vergelyking met dié van die ander drie groepe. Gemengde resultate is gevind met leesselfkonsep, self-effektiwiteit en angs. Die tekortkominge en aanbevelings vir verdere navorsing word ook bespreek.

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