Fruit set and fruit size studies on ‘Forelle’ and ‘Abate Fetel’ pear (Pyrus communis L.)

Dreyer, Carlien (2013-03)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Maintaining constant high yields in „Abate Fetel‟ and „Forelle‟ orchards in South Africa is challenging. Improving productivity in these orchards could be achieved by increasing fruit set and fruit size. Fruit size is an important marketing and quality parameter and has a significant effect on the economic value of fruit. Various protocols to improve fruit set are used by South African producers but these are not well researched. We therefore evaluated different combinations of plant growth regulators including gibberellic acid (GA3), gibberellins 4+7 (GA4+7), GA4+7 combined with 6-benzyladenine (6-BA), aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and prohexadione-calcium (P-Ca) in combination with trunk girdling during flowering on „Forelle‟ and „Abate Fetel‟ to determine the best fruit set strategy. All applied growth regulators improved fruit set relative to an untreated control over two consecutive seasons, but GA3 and P-Ca reduced return bloom and AVG resulted in smaller fruit size relative to the other treatments. The application of synthetic cytokinins are believed to enhance fruit size by stimulating and extending the cell division period in fruit when applied at the correct stage of fruit growth. In addition, combination of P-Ca with GA4+7 was used successfully on Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) and „Bing‟ sweet cherry to improve fruit size. This combination of GA4+7 and P-Ca was evaluated and combined with 6-BA treatments on European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars, Forelle and Abate Fetel, to see if a similar effect on fruit size could be achieved under South African growing conditions. On both „Forelle‟ and „Abate Fetel‟ the combination of GA4+7 and P-Ca increased fruit size, but was more pronounced in „Abate Fetel‟. Growth regulators N-phenyl-N‟ -1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea (TDZ), N (2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N‟ -phenylurea (CPPU), 6-BA and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) successfully increased fruit size in pear cultivars Coscia and Spadona in Israel. These growth regulators were applied to „Forelle‟ and „Abate Fetel‟ to determine if a similar effect could be achieved. None of the synthetic cytokinins applied had a significant effect on increasing fruit size in these two cultivars over two consecutive seasons although 6-BA increased return bloom and 2,4-D application resulted in increased fruit set. The stage when the cell division period in „Forelle‟ and „Abate Fetel‟ ends was also determined as 34 and 45 days after full bloom respectively, which can be used in the future to better plan the timing of fruit size enhancement treatments. Based on results from various fruit set and fruit size improvement trials, it can be recommended to use GA4+7 or AVG to increase fruit set on „Forelle‟ and „Abate Fetel‟, depending on the fruit set history of the orchard. Results from fruit size improvement trials were variable, and emphasises the fact that a balance between yield and fruit size must be determined for an orchard to achieve good fruit size and maximum return.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die handhawing van konstante, hoë opbrengste in „Abate Fetel‟ en „Forelle‟ boorde in Suid-Afrika is 'n uitdaging. Produktiwiteit in hierdie boorde kan verhoog word deur vrugset en vruggrootte te verbeter. Vruggrootte is 'n belangrike bemarkings- en kwaliteitsparameter en het 'n betekenisvolle effek op die ekonomiese waarde van vrugte. 'n Verskeidenheid protokolle om vrugset te verbeter word deur Suid-Afrikaanse produsente gevolg, maar hierdie protokolle is nog nie goed nagevors nie. Verskillende kombinasies van plantgroeireguleerders insluitend gibberelliensuur (GA3), gibberellien 4+7 (GA4+7), GA4+7 in kombinasie met 6-bensieladenien (6-BA), aminoetoksievinielglisien (AVG) en prohexadioon-kalsium (P-Ca) in kombinasie met stamringelering is aan „Forelle‟ en „Abate Fetel‟ bome gedurende blomtyd toegedien om die beste vrugsetstrategie te bepaal. Alle plantgroeireguleerdes wat toegedien is het vrugset verbeter relatief tot 'n onbehandelde kontrole oor twee opeenvolgende seisoene, maar GA3 en P-Ca het die aantal blomme in die daaropvolgende seisoen verlaag en AVG het kleiner vruggrootte gelewer relatief tot alle ander behandelings. Dit is wel bekend dat die toediening van sintetiese sitokiniene vruggrootte verbeter deur die stimulering en bevordering van seldeling in vrugte wanneer dit in die regte groeifase toegedien word. Die kombinasie van P-Ca en GA4+7 was suksesvol om vruggrootte te verbeter toe dit aan Japanese pere (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) en „Bing‟ kersies toegedien is. Hierdie kombinasie van GA4+7 en P-Ca is geëvalueer en gekombineer met 6-BA-behandelings op die Europese peer (Pyrus communis L.) kultivars, Forelle en Abate Fetel, om te bepaal of dieselfde effek op vruggrootte bereik kan word onder Suid-Afrikaanse groei kondisies. Op beide „Forelle‟ en „Abate Fetel‟ het die kombinasies van GA4+7 en P-Ca vruggrootte verbeter, maar dit was meer opmerklik in die geval van „Abate Fetel‟. Die groeireguleerders N-feniel-N‟ -1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea (TDZ), N (2-chloro-4-piridiel)-N‟ -fenielurea (CPPU), 6-BA en 2,4- dichloorfenoksieasynsuur (2,4-D) het vruggrootte verbeter in „Coscia‟ en „Spadona‟ pere in Israel. Hierdie plantgroeireguleerders is toegedien aan „Forelle‟ en „Abate Fetel‟ om vas te stel of dieselfde effek verkry kon word. Nie enige van die sintetiese sitokiniene wat toegedien is het 'n betekenisvolle effek op die verbetering van vruggrootte in hierdie twee kultivars oor twee opeenvolgende seisoene getoon nie, alhoewel 6-BA die verbetering van blom in die daaropvolgende seisoen tot gevolg gehad en 2,4-D vrugset verbeter het. Die stadium waar seldeling in „Forelle‟ en „Abate Fetel‟ eindig is vasgestel as 34 en 45 dae na volblom, onderskeidelik, wat in die toekoms gebruik kan word om die beplanning en tydsberekening van vruggrootte behandelings te verbeter. Na verskeie vrugset en vruggroote verbeterings proewe, kan aanbeveel word dat GA4+7 of AVG gebruik kan word om vrugset in „Forelle‟ en „Abate Fetel‟ te verbeter, afhangende van die vrugset geskiedenis van die boord. Resultate van vruggrootte verbeterings proewe het gevarieër en beklemtoon net weer die feit dat 'n balans tussen opbrengs en vruggrootte bepaal moet word om optimale vruggrootte te handhaaf en so hoë winste te verseker.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/79870
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