Utilization of antigen-specific host responses in the evaluation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, development of disease and treatment effect

Menezes, Angela Maria (2013-03)

Thesis (MScMedSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Setting This study was conducted in the Tygerberg district, Cape Town, in the Western Cape, South Africa Background The evaluation of early tuberculosis (TB) treatment response is based on month 2 sputum culture status. This method of evaluation has a number of limitations: the test requires relatively advanced laboratory infrastructure and procedures, it takes several weeks to obtain results and is a relatively a poor marker at predicting treatment response. The discovery of potential host markers which reflect the efficacy of early treatment would be of great importance for clinical management of individual patients. The treatment failure would be detectable earlier than at week 8 of treatment. The duration of clinical trials of new anti-tuberculosis drugs may also be substantially reduced by such markers if these would be measurable earlier than at week 8 of therapy. Objectives 1) To evaluate diluted, 7-day whole blood cultures stimulated with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) for the presence of host markers of early TB treatment response 2) To evaluate an overnight, undiluted, M.tb antigen stimulated whole blood culture Quantiferon Gold In Tube (QFT-GIT) supernatants for host markers of early TB treatment response The study designs were as follows: In study one, baseline samples and samples from week 1, week 2 and week 4 of treatment from 30 cured TB patients were selected from a larger biomarker study, in which whole blood was stimulated with live M.tb or left unstimulated. Fifty seven host markers were measured in supernatants by multiplex cytokine arrays. In study two, baseline samples and samples from week 2 and week 8 of treatment from 19 cured TB patients were randomly selected from the placebo group in a micronutrient supplement study. QFT-GIT supernatants from these participants were assessed through multiplex cytokine arrays for levels of fifty seven host markers. All of the participants in both studies were Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) negative. Changes in marker expression over time and between fast and slow responders to treatment were evaluated. Comparability between the two culture methods was assessed for markers that were evaluated in both studies. Results In study one, the majority of host markers showed significant changes over time in the unstimulated supernatants. Only GRO and IL-1beta changed significantly in an antigen-specific manner (background levels subtracted). No significant changes were observed between fast and slow responders. In study two, the majority of host markers showed significant changes over time in the unstimulated supernatants whereas only MDC and IL-4 changed during the observation period in antigen stimulated levels. Significant differences were observed between fast and slow responders at pre-treatment for IL-13 Ag-Nil and IL-1betaAg-Nil . Conclusion This study revealed, antigen-specific responses showed only limited potential for early TB treatment response monitoring, but may have potential in differentiating between treatment outcomes. Future investigations may have to include later time points during treatment as these were not included in the present assessment. The QFT-GIT samples do not appear to be equivalent to live M.tb stimulated 7-day whole blood assays.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Instelling Die studie is uitgevoer in die Tygerbergdistrik, Kaapstad, Wes-Kaap, Suid-Afrika. Agtergrond Die evaluering van die respons op vroeë tuberkulose (TB) behandeling word gebaseer op die status van maand 2 sputum kulture. Hierdie evalueringsmetode het ‘n paar beperkinge: die toets benodig relatief gevorderde laboratorium infrastruktuur en prosedures, die toetsuitslae is eers na ‘n paar weke beskikbaar en dit is n relatiewe swak merker om repons op behandeling te voorspel. Die ontdekking van potensiële selfmerkers wat die doeltreffendheid van vroeë behandeling weerspieël sal van groot belang wees vir die kliniese bestuur van individuele pasiënte. Mislukking van die behandeling sal sodoende voor week 8 van behandeling waargeneem kan word. Die tydsduur van kliniese proewe van nuwe anti-tuberkulose medikasie mag ook baie verkort word met sulke merkers as dit voor week 8 van behandeling gemeet kan word. Doelwitte 1) Om verdunde, 7-dae oue volbloedkulture, met lewende Mikobakterium tuberkulosis (M.tb) gestimuleer, te evalueer vir die teenwoordigheid van vroeë TB behandeling respons selfmerkers. 2) Om die supernatant van oornag, onverdunde, M.tb antigeen gestimuleerde volbloedkulture Quantiferon Gold In Tube (QFT-GIT) vir vroeë behandeling respons selfmerkers te evalueer. Die studie-ontwerpe was soos volg: Met studie een is basislynmonsters en monsters verkry na week 1, week 2 en week 4 van behandeling van 30 geneesde TB-pasiënte geselekteer uit ‘n groter biomerkerstudie waarin die volbloed met lewende M.tb gestimuleer is of ongestimuleer gelaat is. Sewe-en-vyftig selfmerkers is in die supernatante gemeet deur middel van multipleks sitokine arrays. Met studie twee is basislynmonsters en monsters verkry na week 2 en week 8 van behandeling van 19 geneesde TB-pasiënte lukraak uit die plasebo-groep in ‘n mikrovoedingstowwe-aanvullingstudie geselekteer. Vlakke van 57 selfmerkers is in die QFT-GIT supernatante van hierdie deelnemers, deur middel van die multipleks sitokine arrays, bepaal. Al die deelnemers van beide studies was HIV negatief. Veranderinge in merker-uitdrukking oor tyd, asook tussen vinnige en stadige respons tot behandeling, is ge-evalueer. Die vergelykbaarheid van die twee kultuurmetodes is geassesseer ten opsigte van die ge-evalueerde merkers in albei studies. Resultate Met studie een het die meerderheid van die selfmerkers in die ongestimuleerde supernatante kenmerkende verandering oor tyd gewys. Slegs GRO en IL-1beta het aansienlik verander in die antigeenspesifieke wyse (agtergrond vlakke afgetrek). Geen kenmerkende veranderinge was waargeneem tussen die vinnige en stadige respons pasiënte nie. Met studie twee het die meerderheid van die selfmerkers aansienlike veranderinge oor tyd in die ongestimuleerde supernatante gewys, in vergelyking waar net die MDC en IL-4 veranderinge gedurende die observasie periode in antigeen gestimuleerde vlakke getoon het. Kenmerkende verskille is tussen die vinnige en stadige respons pasiënte in voorbehandeling vir IL-13 Ag-Nil en IL-1betaAg-Nil waargeneem. Gevolgtrekking Die studie bewys dat antigeenspesifieke response slegs beperkte potensiaal vir vroeë TB behandeling respons monitering het, maar mag die potensiaall vir onderskeidende behandeling uitkomste hê. Toekomstige ondersoeke sal dalk latere tydpunte gedurende die behandeling moet insluit aangesien dit nie in hierdie evaluasie ingesluit is nie. Die QFT-IT monsters verskyn nie as gelykwaardig met die lewendig M.tb gestimuleerde 7-dae volbloed toetse nie.

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