Synthesis and sorption studies of porous metal-organic hosts

Batisai, Eustina (2013-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2013.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The first part of this study describes the synthesis of new porous materials from basic building blocks. Five structurally related ligands namely: N,N'-bis(3-pyridylmethyl)-naphthalene diimide (L1), N,N'-bis(4-pyridylmethyl)-naphthalene diimide (L2), N,N'-bis(4-pyridylmethyl)- pyromellitic diimide (L3), N,N'-bis(3-pyridylmethyl)-pyromellitic diimide (L4) and 2-(pyridin-4- ylmethyl)-benzene tricarboxylic anhydride (L5) were synthesised. Ligands L1 and L2 were reacted with metal nitrates and carboxylates as co-ligands in a systematic manner with a view to obtaining potentially porous 3–D coordination polymers. Ten structurally diverse coordination polymers were obtained and they were characterised by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. Four of these compounds absorb moderate amounts of CO2 and, in addition, show sorption selectivity towards CO2 over N2. The reaction of L3 and L4 with transition metal halides yielded two 1–D chains, while the reaction of L5 with transition metal nitrates yielded seven coordination polymers of which four are 2–D and three are 1–D. Of the 2–D structures three are isostructural. The second part of this work describes a variable pressure study of a flexible metal-organic framework [Zn2(BDC)2(BPY)] (BPY = 4,4 -bipyridine and BDC = 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid). [Zn2(BDC)2(BPY)] is one of the few examples of a flexible metal-organic framework that undergoes phase transformations in response to gas pressure. The high pressure sorption recorded for this metal-organic framework displays two inflection steps in the pressure range 0 to 30 bar, possibly indicating two phase transformations. The gas-loaded structures for each phase transformation were determined by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction. High-pressure differential scanning calorimetry was also carried out on the system in order to determine accurate gate-opening pressures, as well as the energies involved with each phase transformation. The results correlate with those obtained from single-crystal X-ray diffraction and high-pressure sorption. The final section reports the mechanochemical synthesis of two Werner complexes [NiCl2(4- PhPy)4] (1), [CoCl2(4-PhPy)4] (2) and their corresponding solid solution [Ni0.5Co0.5Cl2(4-PhPy)4] (3) (PhPy = phenyl pyridine). The solid solution could only be formed by mechanochemical synthesis and not by conventional solution crystallisation methods. The solid solution exhibits sorption properties that differ from those of the pure compounds.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die eerste deel van hierdie studie beskryf die sintese van nuwe poreuse stowwe uit basiese boublokke. Vyf struktureel verwante ligande naamlik: N,N'-bis(3-piridielmetiel)-naftaleen diimied (L1), N,N'-bis(4-piridielmetiel)-naftaleen diimied (L2), N,N'-bis(4-piridielmetiel)- piromellitien diimied (L3), N,N'-bis(3-piridielmetiel)-piromellitien diimied (L4) en 2-(piridiel-4- ielmetiel)benseen trianhidried (L5) is gesintetiseer. Ligande L1 en L2 is gereageer met metaal nitrate en karboksielsure as mede-ligande in 'n sistematiese wyse met 'n oog op die verkryging van potensieel poreuse 3–D koördinasie polimere. Tien struktureel diverse koördinasie polimere is verkry en hulle is gekarakteriseer deur enkel-kristal X-straal-diffraksie, poeier X-straal diffraksie en termo-analise (thermal analysis). Vier van hierdie verbindings het matige hoeveelhede CO2 geabsorbeer en, bykomend, wys sorpsie selektiwiteit van CO2 oor N2. Die reaksie van L3 en L4 met oorgangsmetaalhaliede het twee 1–D kettings gevorm, terwyl die reaksie van L5 met oorgangsmetaal nitrate sewe koördinasie polimere opgelewer het, waarvan vier 2–D en drie 1–D polimere is. Van die 2–D polimere het drie vergelykbare strukture. Die tweede deel van hierdie werk beskryf 'n veranderlike druk studie van 'n buigsame metaalorganiese raamwerk [Zn2(BDC)2(BPY)] (BPY = 4,4-bipiridien en BDC = 1,4-benseen dikarboksielsuur). [Zn2(BDC)2(BPY)] is een van die min voorbeelde van 'n buigsame metaalorganiese raamwerk wat fase transformasies (phase transformations) ondergaan in respons op ‘n verandering in gas druk. Die hoë-druk sorpsie aangeteken vir hierdie metaal-organiese raamwerk vertoon twee infleksie stappe in die gebestudeerde druk gebied (0 tot 30 bar), wat moontlik op twee fase transformasies dui. Die gas-gelaaide strukture vir elke fase transformasie is bepaal deur middel van enkel-kristal X-straal-diffraksie. Hoë-druk differensiële skandeer kalorimetrie (differential scanning calorimetry) is ook uitgevoer op die stelsel ten einde dié akkurate hekopenings druk, sowel as die energie betrokke by elke fase transformasie te bepaal. Die resultate stem ooreen met dié verkry vanaf enkel-kristal X-straal diffraksie en hoë-druk sorpsie. Die finale afdeling bespreek die meganochemiese sintese van twee Werner komplekse [NiCl2(4-PhPy)4] (1) en [COCl2(4-PhPy)4] (2) en hul ooreenstemmende vaste oplossing (solid solution) [Ni0.5Co0.5Cl2(4-PhPy)4] (3). Die vaste oplossing kan slegs gevorm word deur meganochemiese sintese en nie deur konvensionele oplossing kristallisasie metodes. Die vaste oplossing vertoon sorpsie eienskappe wat verskil van dié van die suiwer verbindings.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/79803
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